Sao Pedro Do Rio Grande Do Sul (formerly abbreviated to Rio Grande do Sul, now to São Pedro).
The Southernmost Province Of Brazil, bounded N. by Paraná, N. E. by Santa Catharina, S. E. by the Atlantic, S. W. by Uruguay, and N. W. by the Argentine Republic; area, 73,836 sq. m.; pop. in 1872 (estimated), 455,000, including several thousand Germans and about 84,000 slaves. The Serra do Mar traverses the province near the coast from N. to S., and the Serra Geral runs E. to W., none of the peaks rising more than 3,200 ft. above the sea. The S. and W. parts are level, and the coast is low and sandy. Parallel to the coast in nearly its whole extent are Lake Merim, 115 m. long and 15 m. wide, and the lagõa dos Patos, 150 m. long and 40 m. wide, united by a natural canal, São Gonzalo, 50 m. long, and communicating with the ocean through the estuary called Rio Grande do Sul, which extends from the S. end of the lagõa dos Patos and empties into the Atlantic over a dangerous bar. Besides the Uruguay, which flows on its N. and W. border, the principal rivers are the Ibicuy, 350 m. long, a tributary of the Uruguay; the Jacuy, navigable for 250 m., emptying into the lagõa dos Patos; and the Jaguarão, 175 m. long, falling into Lake Merim. The W. shores of the lakes are verdant plains intersected by small streams, and producing all the cereals and fruits of the temperate and tropic zones, with flax, hemp, sugar cane, cotton, and tobacco.
Ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, turpeth, camomile, and indigo abound. The forests afford abundant timber and a great variety of cabinet woods. The province is rich in gold, silver, iron, copper, marbles, and particularly coal. Lead, granite, kaolin and other clays, ochres, and many varieties of precious stones are found. Cattle raising is an important industry. Mining is still limited. Railway and telegraph lines are now (1875) in course of construction through the province. Education is encouraged; in 1873 there were 446 public schools, with an aggregate attendance of 14,696 pupils. The chief towns are São Pedro, Pelotas, Pardo, and Porto Alegre, the capital.
A City Of The Preceding Province, near the mouth of the Rio Grande do Sul, 150 m. S. S. W. of Porto Alegre; pop. about 18,000. The streets are irregular, but well paved. The harbor is the only good one in the province, nearly the entire trade of which, conducted mainly by English and Germans, centres here. Three lines of steamers run to Porto Alegre. The exports in 1872-'3 were valued as follows: hides, $5,037,312; horsehair, $247,200; wool, $149,544; maté or Paraguay tea, $93,658; rum, sugar, coffee, and timber, $6,897; total, $5,534,611. The imports amounted to $1,826,587. The arrivals from foreign ports were 929 vessels, tonnage 198,029; departures 698, tonnage 212,936; arrivals from Brazilian ports 840, tonnage 221,213; departures 890, tonnage 185,060.