I. A Lan Or District Of Sweden

A Lan Or District Of Sweden, in Svealand, bordering on the gulf of Bothnia, Stockholm, Lake Maelar, Westmanland, and Gefleborg; area, 2,015 sq. m.; pop. in 1874, 102,629. The sea coast extends about 20 m., and has several small indentations and the large bay of Løftsa. The surface consists of undulating plains, and there are several lakes; the soil is fertile in the south, and the scenery beautiful, but much of the north is barren and bleak. Iron ore is extensively worked, that of Dannemora being the best. Sufficient grain is raised for local consumption, and cattle are largely exported.

II. A City, Capital Of The Ian

Capital Of The Ian A City, on the Fyris or Sala, near its junction with the Skol, 40 m. N. N. W. of Stockholm; pop. in 1873,12,138. It is in the largest and most fertile plain of central Sweden, and contains fine new buildings and parks. The archbishop of Upsal is primate of all Sweden. The Gothic cathedral, commenced in the latter part of the 13th century and finished in 1435, is the most celebrated of the country, though not improved by the restorations which it has undergone since the damage inflicted by the great conflagration of 1702. Among its relics are those of St. Eric in a silver shrine, the monument of Gustavus Vasa and John II., and many other tombs and monuments in the various chapels, including that of Linnaeus. Trinity church in the Odin Lund park, near the cathedral, is a much older building. In the same locality is an obelisk erected in honor of Gustavus Adolphus for his rich endowment of the university. This institution was founded by Sten Sture in 1477. In 1875 it had 1,480 students (855 in philosophy, 332 in theology, 151 in medicine, and 142 in law), with 31 professors and 68 other teachers.

New university buildings are projected, the foundation stone to be laid on the fourth centennial of its foundation (1877). The university library, dating from 1621, is now in a handsome building adjoining the Carolina park, and contains 150,000 volumes and 8,000 manuscripts, including the Codex Argenteus of Ulfilas, the most complete copy in Europe of the old Icelandic Edda, the holy book of the Druses, and a Bible with commentations by Luther and Melanchthon. Connected with the university are large numismatic and mineralogical collections, a botanic garden (near the house of Linnaeus) with a museum, and an observatory. Upsal has a gymnasium and other schools, and the Gustavian academy and other learned institutions. The greatest business activity occurs in February, when the ancient annual market is held. There is much railway and steamboat traffic with Stockholm. - About 3 m. N. is the village of Gamla Upsala (Old Upsal), the traditional capital of Odin. No vestiges remain of the temple and the sacred grove devoted to his worship, though there are numerous tumuli, of great archaeological interest, and considered among the largest N. of the Alps. New excavations have recently been undertaken.

In the vicinity of Upsal is the Mora meadow with the Mora stones, renowned from the practice in ancient times of electing the kings here, lifting them upon a large stone in the centre, and engraving the name of each new king, with the date of his election, on a newly deposited stone.