A Polish Statesman Jan, born at Skokow, in the palatinate of Chelm, in 1541, died at Zamosc in 1605. He was educated at Paris, Strasburg, and Padua, and after his return to Poland in 1565 soon rose to high positions. On the death of King Sigismund Augustus in 1572, he succeeded in extending the electivo franchise of the equestrian order, in consequence of which Henry of Anjou (afterward Henry III. of France) was chosen king of Poland. The new king made him grand chamberlain. Upon the abandonment of Poland by Henry, a party of nobles elected Maximilian II. of Austria, but Zaraojski placed himself at the head of the movement which gave the crown to Stephen Bathori of Transylvania, who made him grand chancellor of the kingdom, and in 1580, during the war with Russia, commanderin-chief of the army, with the title of hetman. In 1582 he brought about the favorable peace with Russia; but the enmity which his favor with the king, whose niece he married, had excited, and his unpopularity for the share he had in the reforms of Bathori and in the execution of a nobleman, Samuel Zborowski, led him to retire to a great extent from public life.
After the death of Báthori in 1586, he might have secured the crown for himself; but he used his influence in favor of Sigismund III., the son of the king of Sweden, defeated the army of the opposing candidate, the archduke Maximilian, at Cracow, pursued him into Silesia, and took him and his forces prisoners. From 1590 till near the close of his life he almost alone maintained the integrity of the state, fighting successfully against Turks, Tartars, Cossacks, Moldavians, and Swedes, and oftentimes supporting the army from his private fortune. Increasing infirmities finally compelled him to retire to his estates, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits. He founded Zamosc, which became one of the strongest fortresses of Poland, established there an academy and a printing press, and munificently promoted letters and science. His writings include Testamentum Joannis Zamori (Mentz, 1606).
A Statesman Andrew Count, born in 1716, died in Zamosc, Feb. 10, 1792. He entered the military service of Saxony, but returned to Poland in 1754 with the rank of. major general. In 1760 he emancipated his serfs, a measure which met with much opposition from the nobility. On the accession of Stanislas Augustus he was appointed grand chancellor; but when, in 1767, the Russian general Repnin had several senators and bishops transported to Kaluga, he resigned his office. In 1776, at the request of the diet, he drew up a code of laws, published under the title of Zbior praw sadowych (3 vols., Warsaw, 1778). The liberal character of the code, especially its provision for a general measure of emancipation, aroused against it so great a hostility, that it was not adopted till 1791.