Alexander Dreyschock, a German composer, born at Zack, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1818, died in Venice in April, 1869. He studied four years under the direction of Tomascheck, and in 1838 undertook his first tour as a pianist through northern Germany. The years 1840 to 1842 were passed in Russia, after which he was repeatedly heard in all the principal European cities. In 1862 he was appointed professor in the conservatory of St. Petersburg, and in 1865 pianist to the emperor. He was also chapelmaster to the grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. As a player he was distinguished for his grace and expression, for great facility in left-hand passages, and the astonishing rapidity of his octave playing. He published more than 140 works, which are marked for their clearness, symmetry, and fine singing style. They consist of military rondos for piano and orchestra, sonatas, studies, fantasias, nocturnes, songs without words, and the like.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, a German author, born in Berlin in 1714, died in Frank-fort-on-the-Oder, where he was professor of philosophy, May 26, 1762. He was the founder of the science of aesthetics in his two works: De Nonnullis ad Poema pertinentibus (Halle, 1735), and AEsthetica (2 vols., Frankfort, 1750- '58, incomplete), which are written in the spirit of the Wolfian philosophy. Baumgarten was the first to attempt a scientific analysis of the principles of beauty in nature as well as in art, and of those faculties of the mind by which the beautiful is recognized. He maintained that the mind has a double faculty of perception, the higher or logical one, which forms reasonable notions establishing the truth, while the lower or aesthetic perceives immediately, without conscious reasoning, the elements of beauty. Other works of Baumgarten are Metaphysica, Ethica Philosophica, and Initia Philosophies Practice.
Alexander Graydon, an American author, born in Bristol, Pa., April 10, 1752, died in Philadelphia, May 2,1818. He was educated in Philadelphia, and in 1775 joined the colonial forces as captain. After carrying a supply of money to the troops under the command of Gen. Schuyler at Lake George, he joined the army at New York, and was taken prisoner in the action on Harlem heights. He was confined in New York and at Flatbush, was afterward liberated on. parole, and exchanged in 1778. He resided in Harrisburg from 1785 to 1799, when he removed to a farm near that city, from which he returned to Philadelphia in 1816. He published in 1811 his "Memoirs of a Life, chiefly passed in Pennsylvania, within the last Sixty Years," illustrative of revolutionary manners and history. It was republished in Edinburgh (1822) and in Philadelphia (1846).
Alexander Hodgdon Stevens, an American surgeon, born in New York in 1789, died there, March 30, 1869. He graduated in medicine in 1815 at the university of Pennsylvania, and became surgical dresser and afterward house surgeon in the New York hospital. In 1817 he was appointed attending surgeon there, and in 1839 resigned and was chosen consulting-surgeon. He was professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the college of physicians and surgeons, New York, from 182G to 1837, and of clinical surgery from 1837 to 1839. He was also president of the college from 1843 to 1855. In 1848 he was chosen president of the medical society of the state of New York.