Cassock, a close garment resembling a long froekeoat, made of cloth or silk with a single upright collar, worn under the surplice by clergymen of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. In the Roman church it varies in color, being black for priests, purple for bishops, scarlet for cardinals, and white for popes. In the Anglican church it is always black, and worn by all orders of the clergy.
Castalia, a fountain at the foot of Mount Parnassus, near the temple of Apollo, at Delphi, in Phocis. It was, like the mountain, sacred to Apollo and the muses, which were therefore called Castalides. The Pythia used to bathe in its waters before delivering the oracles of the god; it was regarded as a source of inspiration for poets, and had its name, according to some authorities, from Castalia, the daughter of Achelous, who, heing pursued by Apollo, threw herself into the fountain.
Castalio, Or Castalion, Sebastien, a French theologian, born in Dauphiny in 1515, died in Basel, Dec. 20, 1563. His family name was Chateillon, which he latinized into Castalion. Through the influence of Calvin he was made professor of classical literature at Geneva. Having quarrelled with Calvin, who caused his banishment in 1544, he repaired to Basel, where he taught Greek; but as his stipend did not suffice to support his numerous family, he was compelled to employ part of his time in agricultural labors. Besides several theological works, he made a Latin translation of the Bible, the best edition of which is in folio (Basel, 1573). He defended the right of free discussion in a collection of maxims compiled from various sources.
Caste. See India.
Castel Branco, Or Castello Branco, a city of Portugal, in the province of Beira, situated on the Liria, 42 m. N. E. of Abrantes; pop. 6,700. It is the see of a bishop, and has a college, two collegiate churches, and a ruined castle on the summit of the hill on which the town stands.
Castel-Fidardo, a town of Italy, in the province and 11 m. S. of Ancona, near Lo-reto, on a range of hills between the Musone and the Aspio; pop. about 6,500. Near it the Italians under Gen. Cialdini defeated the papal troops under Lamoriciere, Sept. 18, 1860.
Castel-Framo, a town of Italy, in the province of Treviso, 23 m. N. W. of Venice; pop. about 5,000. Here the French, on Nov. 23, 1805, gained a victory over the Austrians.
Castel-Vetrano, a town of Sicily, in the province of Trapani, situated on a hill 6. m. from the sea, 45 m. S. W. of Palermo; pop. in 1872, 20,420. The town is well built, and has a considerable trade in wine and olives.
Castellaneta, a town of S. Italy, in the province of Lecce, 18 m. N. W. of Taranto; pop. about 6,500. It is the seat of a bishop.
Castellon De La Plana. I. An E. province of Spain, bordering on the Mediterranean, forming part of the ancient kingdom of Valencia; area, 2,446 sq. m.; pop. in 1867 (estimated), 288,921. It is very mountainous, and is watered by several small rivers, the most important of which are the Mijares and Palen-cia. It is well cultivated, produces grain, and has many mines and mineral springs. The chief towns, besides the capital, are Benicarlo, Villareal, and Burriana. II. A city, capital of the province, situated in a fertile region, 4 m. from the sea, and 38 m. N. by E. of Valencia; pop. about 20,000. It has linen and sail-cloth factories, and carries on considerable trade in hemp. The former diocese of Castellon de la Plana is now united with Se-gorbe. An aqueduct, cut in great part through the limestone rock, brings the water from the Mijares, which is about 5 m. distant, into the plain in which the town is situated.