Charles Angustin De Coulomb, a French philosopher, born at Angouleme in June, 1736, died in Paris, Aug. 23, 1806. He began life as a military engineer, serving three years in the West Indies, and afterward in France. Upon the outbreak of the revolution he left the army and devoted himself to the education of his children and to study. He published important treatises upon electricity and magnetism, discovered the non-penetration of electricity into the interior of solid bodies, and invented the torsion balance. His treatises, Theorie des machines simples and Sur la chaleur, received a prize from the academy.
He was aide-de-camp to Lannes and Prince Eugene, and was severely wounded at the battle of Lutzen in 1813. In the same year he married a lady of the legitimist Chastellux family, and after Napoleon's first abdication he entered the service of the Bourbons, but was the first to join the emperor after his return from Elba, who made him general and peer. He was one of the last to leave the battle field at Waterloo. Supporting Napoleon II., and excepted from the amnesty, he left Paris, but imprudently returned, and Louis XVIII. had him shot despite the efforts of Benjamin Constant. Napoleon left 150,000 francs to his heirs.
Charles Auguste Mallet, a French philosopher, born in Lille, Jan. 1, 1807. He studied at the normal school, and was professor in various colleges of the interior till 1842, when he was called to the college St. Louis in Paris. From 1848 to 1850 he was inspector of the academy of Paris, and afterward rector of the academy of Rouen, retiring in 1852. His principal works are: Etudes philosophiqucs (2 vols., Paris, 1837-'8; 2d ed., 1843); translation of Beattie's " Elements of Moral Science" (2 vols., 1840); Histoire de la philosophic ioni-enne (1842); Histoire de I'ecole de Megare des ecolesd'EHs et d'Eretrie (1846); and Elements de morale (1804).
Charles Batteux, a French writer on aesthetics, born May 6, 1713, died July 14, 1780. He was appointed professor at the college de Li-sieux in Paris, and at the college de Navarre, and subsequently Greek and Latin professor at the college de France. In his Beaux arts re-duits d un seul principe (Paris, 1746), and Histoire des causes premieres (1769), he opposed mannerism and conventionalities, and strove to bring art and philosophy back to a closer harmony with nature. This theory was opposed to the opinions of many of his academical friends, and led to the suppression of the chair which he filled at the college de France. In 1754 he became a member of the academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, and in 1761 of the French academy.
Charles Bossut, a French mathematician, bom at Tarare, Aug. 11, 1730, died Jan. 14, 1814. He studied under D'Alembert, became his collaborator in the Encyclopedic, and was admitted to the academy in 1768, after which the king founded for him a chair of hydrodynamics. He published Mecanique en general, Cours complet des mathematiques, and Essai sur Vhistoire generale des mathematiques. The last, published in 1802, was his masterpiece. He wrote also on navigation, astronomy, physics, and history, and prepared an edition of Pascal's works, with an essay on his life and writings.