Charles Louis Muller, popularly known as Müller de Paris, a French painter, born in Paris, Dec. 22, 1815. He studied under Co-gniet and Gros, and in the school of fine arts, and in 1837 exhibited his first picture, "Christmas Morning." From 1850 to 1853 he was director of the manufacture of Gobelin tapestry, and in 1864 he succeeded Flandrin in the academy of fine arts. Among his principal works are "The Martyrdom of St, Bartholomew," "The Massacre of the Innocents," "Prima-vera," and "The Appeal of the Victims of the Reign of Terror." The last, his masterpiece, contains portraits of the most illustrious victims. In 1855 he exhibited a large painting, Vive Vempereur, illustrating a poem by Méry, representing an episode in the battle before Paris, March 30, 1814, which gained for him a medal of the first class. Among his later works are "Desdemona" (1868), and "Lan-juinais at the Tribune" (1869).
Charles Magnin,a French author, born in Paris, Nov. 4, 1793, died there, Oct. 7, 1862. He received a brilliant education, and became in 1813 assistant in the imperial library, and in 1832 one of the directors of that institution. His theatrical criticisms in the Globe (1826-'30), his lectures at the Sorbonne (1834-'5) on the origin of the modern stage, and bis various writings won for him the praise of Sainte-Beuve, and a seat in the academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, lie also wrote poetry and plays. His principal works are: Origines du theatre moderne (1838); Gauseries et meditations (2 vols., 1843); Theatre de Ilrosioitha (1845, with text and translation); and Histoire des marionettes (1852).
Charles Marguerite Jean Baptiste Mer-Cier Dupaty, a French jurist, born in La Rochelle, May 9, 1746, died in Paris, Sept. 17, 1788. In 1768 he became advocate general at the parliament of Bordeaux, strongly defended the privileges of the French parliaments against the encroachments of the crown, and was imprisoned. He wrote Reflexions historiques sur le droit criminel, and Lettres sur la procedure crimi-nelle de France (1788), containing views subsequently embodied in the Code Napoleon.
See Charles Martel.
Charles Melehior Artns Bonchamp, marquis de, a French soldier, born at Jouverteil, Anjou, about 1760, died near Ohollet, Oct. 18, 1793. He served in the American war of independence, and on his return to France resigned and remained faithful to Louis XVI. After the outbreak of the insurrection in Vendee (March, 1793), his tenantry compelled him to place himself at their head. He commanded the insurgent troops in Lower Poitou and in Anjou, and was wounded in the attack on Nantes and on other occasions, and defeated Kleber near Torfou. He was mortally wounded near Ohollet, and died next day on the retreat, after having prevented his soldiers from retaliating upon the prisoners of war. The Memoires de Mme. de Bonchamp sur la Vendee, edited by Mme. de Genlis (Paris, 1823), are regarded as good authority, though ultra-royalist.