Claude Bernard Adrieii Chenot

Claude Bernard Adrieii Chenot, a French engineer, born at Bar-sur-Aube in 1803, died in 1855. He entered the mining school in Paris in 1820, after which he was attached to the • secretaryship of the department of bridges and roads, and superintended the working of the mines in Auvergne. In 1832 he invented an apparatus for the manufacture of metallic sponges, and afterward obtained sponges from the earthy minerals, as aluminum and calcium, which he made to enter into other combinations, especially with steel, to which he thus gave remarkable properties. Matter in the sponge state, he thought, is the greatest power to which the chemist can have recourse, and he sought to found upon it a new system of metallurgy. He made many experiments for the purification of combustibles and metals.

Claude Bourgelat

Claude Bourgelat, a French veterinary surgeon, born in Lyons in 1712, died in 1799. He began to practise as an advocate, and afterward served in the cavalry, where he became very skilful in the treatment of horses. In 1762 he opened a veterinary school at Lyons, the first in France. He was a member of the Paris and Berlin academies of science. The best of his many works, Traite de la conformation exterieure du cheval, de sa oeaute et de ses defauts (Paris, 1776; 3d part by Huzard, 1803-'8), passed through many editions, and was translated into several languages.

Claude Chappe

Claude Chappe, a French engineer and mechanician, born at Brulon in 1703, died Jan. 23, 1805. Having invented an ingenious system of signals to communicate at a distance with his friends, he presented it to the French legislative assembly in 1702. It was successfully tried between Paris and Lille, on a length of 48 leagues, and was adopted by the government. Chappe established several lines in France, and the one running north was first put in motion to announce the recapture of the town of Conde from the Prussians. The inventor was at once rewarded by the convention, which by a decree appointed him inge-niciir telegraphe. The lines were extended all over France, and the system was also adopted, with some alterations, through Germany and England. The attacks to which he was subjected by persons jealous of his invention preyed so much upon his mind that he committed suicide.

Claude Dablon

Claude Dablon, a French Jesuit missionary in Canada, New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin, born in 1618, died in Quebec, Sept. 20, 1697. He arrived in 1655, and began a mission at Onondaga; in 1661 set out to reach Hudson bay overland; went to Lake Superior with Marquette in 1668, and established the mission of Sault Ste. Marie, and one among the Foxes. He became superior of the Canada missions in 1670, and prepared the Relation de la Noiwelle France for 1671-'2, the last published at the time. His Relation for 1672-'3 was printed at New York in 1861, and that for 1675 in 1854, and both at Paris, with some for subsequent years, in 1861. A general Relation prepared by him for 1673-'9 appeared at New York in 1860. The account of Marquette's discovery of the Mississippi, as edited by him, was printed in 1853.