Ernst Hermann Joseph Von Munch, a German historian, born in Rheinfelden, Switzerland, Oct. 25, 1798, died there, June 9, 1841. He was for some time professor at Freiburg, and filled the chair of ecclesiastical history and law at Liége. He was also royal librarian at the Hague, and director of the private library of the king of Würtemberg. Among his principal works are Allgemeine Geschichte der neuesten Zeit (6 vols., Leipsic, 1833-5), and his autobiography, Erinnerungen and Studien aus den ersten 37 Jahren eines deuutschen Gelehrten (3 vols., Carlsruhe, 1836-'8).
Ernst Julius Hahnel, a German sculptor, born in Dresden, March 9, 1811. He studied architecture under Rietschel in Dresden, and under Schwanthaler in Munich, and sculpture at Rome and Florence. In 1835 he went to Munich, and in 1848 became professor at the academy of Dresden. In 1855 he was invited to the academy of Vienna, where he was a successful teacher. Among his best works are a statue of Beethoven at Pome, and a Madonna. The bass-reliefs in the new museum at Dresden are also his work. These were followed by the "Four Evangelists," and the "Three Holy Kings," of colossal size, for the tower at Neu-stadt-Dresden (1858), and the tomb of King Frederick Augustus II. of Saxony (1866).
Ernst Konrad Friedrieh Schulze, a German poet, born in Celle, March 22, 1789, died there, June 29, 1817. He studied theology at Göttingen, and afterward graduated in philology, but his friend Bouterwek turned his attention to aesthetic and classical studies. He wrote Cäcilie, a romantic poem (2 vols., new ed., Leipsic, 1822), idealizing Cäcilie Tychsen, a deceased lady to whom he had been attached. After participating in the war against France in 1814, he wrote Die bezauberte Rose (11th ed., Leipsic, 1867), which has been translated into English and French. His collected works have been edited by Bouterwek (4 vols., Leipsic, 1822) and Marggraff (5 vols., 1855).
Ernst Ton Lasaulx, a German philologist, born in Coblentz, March 16, 1805, died in Munich, May 10, 1861. He was the son of an architect, studied in Bonn and Munich, spent some time in Rome and the East, and was professor of philology at Wurzburg from 1835 to 1844, and subsequently at Munich. In the Bavarian chamber he was conspicuous as an ultramontane. His principal works are: Der Untergang des Hellenismus (Munich, 1854); Ueber die theologische Grundlage aller philoso-phischen Systeme (1856); and Die Philosophie der schonen Kunste (1860).
Ernst Von Bibra, baron, a German naturalist and author, born at Schwebheim, Bavaria, June 9,1806. He studied law and afterward chemistry, and published several medical and chemical works, 1840-'48. He explored parts of Chili, Peru, and Brazil, and since his return from South America has resided in Nuremberg, where his scientific collections have acquired some celebrity. His works include Verglei-chende Untersuchungen uber das Gehirn des Menschen und der Wirbelthiere (1854); Reisen in SudameriTca (2 vols., 1854); Die narTcoti-schen Genussmittel und der Mensch (1855); Erinneruiigen aus Sudamerika (3 vols., 1861); Aus Chile, Peru und Brasilien (2 vols.,. 1862); and Hoffnungen in Peru (3 vols., 1864). He has also published novels and other writings, and in 1869 the first part of an archajological work.