James Hervey

James Hervey, an English author, born at Hardingstone, near Northampton, Feb. 20, 1713, died Dec. 25, 1758. He graduated at Oxford, took orders, and at the age of 22 was appointed curate to his father, on whose death in 1750 he succeeded to his two livings at Weston Favell and Collingtree. He was noted for his benevolence, and was well skilled in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. In 1746-'7 he published his "Meditations and Contemplations," which have been widely read and admired. In 1753 he published "Remarks on Lord Boling-broke's Letters on History;" in 1755, "Theron and Aspasia," a work on the Calvinistic theory of redemption. He also published letters to Wesley and to Lady Frances Shirley, and edited, with a preface, Burnham's "Pious Memorials," and Jenks's "Devotions." His works, with a memoir (7 vols. 8vo, London, 1797), have passed through numerous editions.

James Howell

James Howell, an English author, born near Brecknock, Wales, in 1596, died in 1666. He was educated at Jesus college, Oxford, and passed many years on the continent, as a mercantile agent, as travelling tutor, or in a diplomatic capacity. In 1640 he was appointed clerk to the council at Whitehall, but after the breaking out of the civil war he was thrown into the Fleet, where he languished until after the death of Charles I. After the restoration he was appointed historiographer royal, an office which he retained until his death. Howell's publications number about 40, the greater part as well as the best of them being in prose. His Epistolae Ho-Eliance, or "Familiar Letters," first printed in 1645-'55, and of which many editions have appeared, was the second published collection of epistolary literature in the English language.

James Hutton

James Hutton, a British natural philosopher, born in Edinburgh, June 3, 1726, died March 26, 1797. He entered the university of Edinburgh in 1740, and began the study of law, which he subsequently abandoned for medicine, taking the degree of M. D. at Ley-den in 1749. He engaged in the manufacture of sal ammoniac from coal soot, inherited from his father a small estate in Berwickshire, betook himself to agriculture, finally removed to his native city in 1768, devoting himself especially to the study of geology, and made several important discoveries. In 1795 he published the results of 30 years' study in his " Theory of the Earth," assuming that heat is the principal agent of nature.

James Lawrence Orr

James Lawrence Orr, an American statesman, born at Craytonville, S. C, May 12, 1822, died in St. Petersburg, May 5, 1873. He graduated at the university of Virginia in 1842, was admitted to the bar and practised in Anderson, S. C, and in 1844-'5 was a member of the legislature. From 1848 to 1859 he was a member of congress, and was speaker of the house of representatives in the 35th congress. He was a member of the South Carolina convention which voted for secession; was one of the state commissioners to Washington in December, 1860; and in 1862-'5 was a Confederate States senator. From 1865 to 1868 he was provisional governor of South Carolina under federal appointment, and afterward acted with the republican party. In 1870 he became judge of the state circuit court, and in 1873 was appointed United States minister to Russia, dying soon after his arrival.