James Lick, an American philanthropist, born at Fredericksburg, Lebanon co., Pa., Aug. 25, 1790. He was engaged in commercial pursuits in South America from 1821 to 1847, when he went to California, invested largely in real estate, and employed his means in other enterprises, which resulted in the accumulation of a large fortune. In 1874 he assigned $2,000,000 from his estate to trustees for various public and philanthropic purposes, including $700,000 for a telescope and other apparatus for an observatory previously founded by him at Lake Tahoe; $300,000 for a school of mechanical arts in California; $250,-000 for public monuments and $150,000 for public baths in Sacramento; $150,000 for a monument to Francis Scott Key, the author of "The Star-Spangled Banner;" and large sums to several benevolent societies in San Francisco, in which city he now (1874) resides.
James Luce Kingsley, an American scholar, born in Windham, Conm, Aug. 28, 1778, died in New Haven, Aug. 31, 1852. He graduated at Yale college in 1799, and engaged in teaching, first in Wethersfield, and afterward in his native town. In 1801 he was appointed a tutor in Yale college, and in 1805 received the newly established professorship of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages in the same institution. He was relieved of a portion of his duties in 1831, when a separate professorship of Greek was instituted, and of another portion in 1835, when a professorship of sacred literature was founded. In Latin he continued to instruct until his resignation in 1851. He published a few Latin text books, a discourse on the 200th anniversary of the founding of New Haven, a history of Yale college in the "American Quarterly Register," and a life of Ezra Stiles in Sparks's "American Biography."
James Macdonald, an American physician, born at White Plains, N. Y., July 18, 1803, died at Flushing, L. I., May 5, 1849. He took his degree of M. D. in 1825, and was appointed resident physician of Bloomingdale lunatic asylum. In 1831 he was sent by the governors of the New York hospital to visit the insane hospitals of Europe, stipulating that on his return he should have entire charge of the asylum for five years. In 1837 he resigned, and for the next four years he was a visiting physician of the New York hospital. In 1841 he opened a private insane asylum at Murray Hill, afterward removed to Flushing. In 1842 he began at the college of physicians and surgeons a course of lectures on mental diseases. His published works include "An Essay on the Construction and Management of Insane Hospitals," "A Review of Ferrers on Insanity," " A Dissertation on Puerperal Insanity," and several reports. He was a frequent contributor to the "American Journal of Insanity."
James Macknight, a Scottish author, born at Irvine, Argyleshire, in 1721, died in Edinburgh in 1800. He studied at Glasgow and Leyden, was licensed as a preacher, and in 1753 was appointed minister of Maybole in Ayrshire, where he continued for 16 years, and composed some of his most valuable works. In 1769 he was transferred to Jedburgh, and in 1772 became pastor of one of the leading churches of Edinburgh, where the rest of his life was passed. His most important works are: "Harmony of the Four Gospels" (4to, 1756; 2d ed., 2 vols. 4to, 1763); "The Truth of the Gospel History" (4to, 1763); and "A New Translation of the Apostolical Epistles, with Commentary and Notes" (4 vols., 1795).