See Jaffa.


I. Johann Christian Gottfried, a German physician, born at Predel, near Zeitz, Dec. 24, 1779, died in Leipsic, Sept. 20, 1856. He was professor of obstetrics in the university of Leipsic from 1810 till his death. His works relate chiefly to female physiology and pathology, and include a series of manuals which passed through several editions. II. Eduard, son of the preceding, born in Leipsic, Jan. 19, 1808. After taking his degree of M. D. he travelled extensively, went to the United States in 1837, and spent several years in Cuba observing tropical diseases, on which he published several works. Subsequently he returned to the United States and practised in Illinois and in Pennsylvania.

Jose Antonio Conde

Jose Antonio Conde, a Spanish orientalist and historian, born at Paraleja, in the province of Cuenca, about 1765, died in Madrid in 1820 or 1821. He was educated at Alcala, applied himself to the study of oriental languages, and obtained employment at the royal library of Madrid. Joseph Bonaparte appointed him chief librarian. When the French were driven from Spain, he repaired to Paris, but subsequently returned to Madrid. He wrote a Description de Espana (1799), and Historia de la domination de los Arabes en Espana (3 vols, fol., with plates, Madrid, 1820-21; 8vo, Paris, 1840; translated into French by Maries, into German by Kuttschmann, 1824-'5, and into English by Mrs. Jonathan Forster, 1854).

Jose Clavijo Y Faxardo

Jose Clavijo Y Faxardo, a Spanish author, born in the Canarv islands about 1730, died in Madrid in 1806. He owes his notoriety mainly to his duel with Beaumarchais, who challenged him because Clavijo had broken his promise to marry one of his sisters to whom he had paid his addresses. By the influence of Beaumarchais he lost the office of keeper of the archives, which he had held in Madrid; but a few years later he was appointed editor of the official paper, El Mercurio de Madrid, and also officiated for some time as director of a theatre. He furnished a Spanish translation of Buftbn's "Natural History," for which he was rewarded by being appointed assistant director of the museum of natural history at Madrid. His adventure with Beaumarchais's sister has been dramatized by several poets, and most successfully by Goethe, who followed, however, the unfavorable sketch in the witty Frenchman's memoirs, while Clavijo is said to have been a worthy gentleman.

Jose Maria Dalbaida Orense

Jose Maria D'Albaida Orense, marquis, a Spanish statesman, born about 1802. He has been for the past 40 years a leader of republicanism in Spain, and has been several times arrested and banished. The deposition of Isabella in September, 1868, brought him back to the cortes. After the proclamation of the French republic (Sept. 4, 1870) he urged his countrymen to join the French against Germany, and he proposed at Tours a republican federation of Latin nations. He protested against Ama-deus as king of Spain (Nov. 16, 1870), after whose abdication in February, 1873, he was chosen a member of the constituent assembly, but withdrew from the cortes in August.