Marie Sophie Schwartz, a Swedish novelist, born at Boras, July 4, 1819. She is a daughter of Johan Birath, a merchant, and married in 1839 Prof. Gustavus Magnus Schwartz, a physiologist, who died in 1858. Since that date she has published numerous novels, of which a complete German translation has appeared in Stuttgart (54 vols., 1865-'71). Some of them have been published in English in the United States, including "Gold and Name," "Birth and Education," and "Guilt and Innocence".
Marienbad, a watering place in Bohemia, 20 m. S. S. W of Carlsbad, and 76 m. W. by S. of Prague; pop. about 1,000. It contains a number of mineral springs, beneficial for diseases of the chest, bowels, and skin, as well as for rheumatic complaints, and is annually visited by thousands of persons. The waters of some of the springs, particularly of the Kreuz-brunnen, are largely exported to foreign countries. The watering place is of comparatively recent origin, and was opened out of the forest which covered its site in 1810.
Marienwerder, a town of Prussia, capital of an administrative district in the province of West Prussia, on the Little Nogat, 45 m. S. E. of Dantzic; pop. in 1871, 7,172. It is one of the most beautiful towns of eastern Germany, has a large cathedral church, a gymnasium/a hospital for blind soldiers, and an ancient castle which is now used as a prison. The most important branches of industry are woollen cloth weaving, brewing, and distilling.
Mariesburg, a town of Prussia, in the province of West Prussia, on the Nogat, 28 m. S. E. of Dantzic; pop. in 1871, 8,235. It has a gymnasium, a normal school, and an institution for the deaf and dumb. The castle, which was formerly the seat of the grand master of the Teutonic order, was restored in 1817-24. The town remained with the Teutonic order till 1457, when Poland took possession. In 1772 it was united with Prussia.
Marietta Piccolomini, an Italian singer, a member of the preceding family, born in Siena in 1836. She appeared in 1855 at Florence in Lucrezia Borgia, and Verdi composed La Tra-viata for her. She was successful in London and the United States, but less so in Paris, and retired from the stage in 1861.
Marignano, Or Marignan Melegnano, a town of Italy, on the Lambro, in the province and 10 m. S. E. of the city of Milan; pop. about 4,000. It was destroyed by the emperor Frederick II. in 1289; and the Guelphs and Ghi-bellines signed a treaty of peace here in 1279. In September, 1515, it was the scene of a famous victory won by Francis I. of France over the Swiss in the service of the duke of Milan, which was called, from its obstinacy and the superior character of the troops on both sides, the " battle of the giants." Another French victory was gained here, June 8, 1859, four days after the battle of Magenta.
Marijy, a W. county of California, bounded E. by the bays of San Pablo and San Francisco, and S. and W. by the Pacific ocean; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,903, of whom 3(51 were Chinese. The surface is rugged and mountainous, and only a small portion of the soil is adapted for cultivation, though much of it is well suited for grazing. The valleys are highly productive. It is intersected by the San Francisco and North Pacific railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 57,880 bushels of wheat, 297,744 of oats, 37,755 of barley, 157,-245 of potatoes, 2,107,755 lbs. of butter, 381,-300 of cheese, and 12,054 tons of hay. There were 2,671 horses, 18,655 milch cows, 10,443 other cattle, 2,067 sheep, and 6,606 swine; 11 brick kilns, 1 saw mill, and 1 paper mill. Capital, San Rafael.