Monongalia, a N. county of West Virginia, bordering on Pennsylvania, and intersected by Monongahela and Cheat rivers; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,547, of whom 231 were colored. The surface is uneven, being mountainous toward the east, where it is crossed by Laurel hill, an extreme western ridge of the Alleghanies; the soil is fertile. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad passes through the S. W. part. The chief productions in 1870 were 111,805 bushels of wheat, 301,328 of Indian corn, 148,072 of oats, 23,772 of potatoes, 55,856 lbs. of wool, 345,573 of butter, and 12,030 tons of hay. There were 4,238 horses, 8,110 cattle, 17,371 sheep, and 7,324 swine; 7 flour, 3 lumber, and 2 woollen mills, and 8 tanneries. Capital, Morgantown.
Monopoli, a seaport town of Italy, in the province and 25 in. S. E. of the city of Bari, on the Adriatic; pop. about 12,000. It is the see of a bishop, and has a cathedral with a fine painting of St. Sebastian by Palma, and a chapel enriched with iidaid marbles of all colors. The town has two harbors, which accommodate large vessels, but one of them is exposed to the N. E. wind, which often blows with great violence in the Adriatic. There are extensive manufactories of cotton and linen cloths. About 3 in. from the town are ruins of the ancient seaport Egnatia, which was early the see of a bishop and was destroyed in the 9th century.
Monreale, a town of Sicily, in the province and 4 m. S. W. of the city of Palermo, on a steep hill called Monte Caputo; pop. about 16,-000. It is the seat of an archbishop, and has one of the most imposing cathedrals of Sicily, containing the tombs of several Norman kings of the 12th century. There is a brisk trade in corn, oil, and fruit raised in the vicinity. Monreale grew up around a splendid Benedictine abbey and church (now the cathedral) founded by the Norman king William the Good in 1174, and took its name (Royal Mount) from its royal origin.
Mons Aventinus. See Rome.
Monseigneir (Fr. mon, my, and seigneur, lord), a French title once applied to saints, and subsequently to princes, nobles, certain high dignitaries of the church, and other titled personages. Under the monarchy the dauphin's eldest son was styled Monseigneur, without any addition. The title is now given only to prelates. The Italian monaignore has a similar signification.
Monsieur (Fr. mon, my, and sieur, sir), a French title of gentlemen, parallel in its original signification and use to the female title mnditme. Under the monarchy it was applied without the addition of the name to the king's eldest brother. It is now given to Frenchmen of every rank and condition. During the first revolution, and for brief periods in 1830 and lstS monsieur was replaced by citoyen, citizen.
Mont Cervix. Sec Matteriiorx.
Mont De Marsan, a town of Gascony, France, capital of the department of Landes, 62 m. S. of Bordeaux, at the junction of the Douze and Midou, which here form the navigable Mi-douze; pop. in 1866, 8,455. It has a communal college, warm mineral springs, and manufactories of coarse woollen cloths, blankets, and sail cloth.