Nikolai Ivammtch Novikoff, a Russian author, born at Tikhvensk, near Moscow, in 1744, died there, Aug. 11, 1818. He early published "The Painter," on the plan of the "Spectator," which acquired popularity, and, in conjunction with his biographical work on Ptus-sian authors (St. Petersburg, 1772), attracted the notice of Catharine II., with whose consent he established a typographical society at Moscow for the circulation of cheap books and the first circulating library in Russia; but he was obliged to leave Moscow on account of his alleged partiality in his publications for the writings of French philosophers and revolutionists. After the death of the empress in 1796, he received permission to return. Among his works is a collection of historical documents and material, entitled "TheOld Russian Library" (10 vols., St. Petersburg, 1773-'5).
Nikolai Svertchkoff, a Russian artist, born in St. Petersburg in 1818. He spent several years in Paris, and in 1852 became a member of the academy of St. .Petersburg, and in 1855 a professor there. He excels in painting horses, costumes, and figures, and also as a sculptor. His principal works include " The Czar Alexander reviewing his Troops," "A Russian Team of three Horses," "A Russian Horse Market," and "A Relay of Post Horses".
Nikolans Delius, a German scholar, born in Bremen in September, 1813. He graduated at Bonn, qualified himself for a professorship in Berlin, and has been since 1855 professor of Sanskrit and of Provencal and English literature at Bonn. He has published a critical edition of Shakespeare's works (7 vols, and supplements, Elberfeld, 1854-65), and other works relating to the English dramatists and to Provencal poetry.
Nikolaus Heinrich Julius, a German physician, born in Altona, Oct. 3, 1783, died in Hamburg, Aug. 20, 1862. With a view of examining the condition and management of prisons, he explored many parts of Europe and the United States, delivered lectures, and published a variety of works on this and kindred subjects, as Die Amerikanischen Verbesserungssysteme (Leipsic,1837), Nordamerikas sittliche Zustande (1839), and Beitrage zur britischen Irreriheil-kunde (1844). He also edited the Jahrbuch der Straf- und Besserungsanstalten (Berlin, 1829-'48), and in concert with Gerson the Magazin der ausldndischen Literatur der gesammten Heilkunde (Hamburg, 1821-'35). In 1849 he returned to Hamburg, where he had previously practised his profession. His German translation of Ticknor's "History of Spanish Literature" appeared in 1852 (2 vols., Leipsic), and in 1866 a supplementary volume, edited by A. Wolf, was published.
Nikolaus Lenau, a German poet, whose real name was Niembsch von Strehlenau, born at Csatad, Hungary, Aug. 15, 1802, died at Ober-dobling, near Vienna, Aug. 22, 1850. He studied in Vienna, visited the United States, and resided in Vienna, Ischl, and Stuttgart. He was about to be married in 1844, when he was seized with insanity, from which he never recovered. He has been characterized as "the poet of melancholy." His most exquisite songs relate to Poland and Hungary. His larger works, the drama Faust (1835) and the epics Savonarola (1837) and Die Aloigenser (1842), all which passed through many editions, are fine though abstruse poems, in which a lyric character predominates. He himself considered the drama Don Juan (1851) as his masterpiece. Anastasius Grim edited his complete works (4 vols., Stuttgart, 1855; new ed. with a biographical notice, 2 vols., 1874).