Pinnigrades

Pinnigrades, a division of carnivorous mammals, in which the legs are short, the feet being broad, webbed paddles for swimming, as in the seals.

Pintado

See Guinea Fowl.

Pinto De Fonseca

See Chaves, Maequis Of.

Piombeno

Piombeno, a town of Italy, in Tuscany, province of Pisa, separated by the strait of Piom-bino from the island of Elba; pop. about 3,000. It is situated on a peninsula which shelters the small harbor of Porto Vecchio, and is fortified. It was formerly the capital of the principality of Piombino (area, 130 sq. m., pop. about 25,000), which was originally a fief of the emperors of Germany, who at the end of the 14th century gave it to the Appiani family, and in 1631 to Spain. In 1634 it reverted to the Ludovisi family, and in 1681, by marriage of the heiress, to the Buoncompagni family. Ferdinand IV., king of the Two Sicilies, who had become suzerain of the principality, ceded it in 1801 to Napoleon, who gave it to his sister Elisa, princess of Lucca and Piombino. The Buoncompagni-Ludovisi family was reinstated in 1815, under the suzerainty of the grand duke of Tuscany; and in 1860 it was incorporated with the dominions of Victor Emanuel.

Piotrrow

I. A Government Of Russia

A Government Of Russia, in Poland, bordering on Kalisz, Warsaw, Radom, Kielce, and Prussian Silesia, and drained by the Pilica and Warta; area, 4,730 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 696,007. The surface is level except in the south, where it is hilly, and the soil mostly sandy. It contains the manufacturing towns of Lodz, Zgierz, and Tomaszow. II A town, capital of the government, 80 m. S. W. of Warsaw, with which it is connected by rail; pop. in 1867, 13,633, a considerable portion of whom were Jews. It is one of the oldest Polish towns. It contains a fine town hall, a number of Roman Catholic churches, a free Lutheran church, a synagogue, and a gymnasium and other schools. Diets were held here in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the supreme tribunal of Great Poland first sat here in 1578.

Pipa

Pipa, a town of S. W. Hungary, in the county and 26 m. N. W. of the city of Veszprem, from which it is separated by the principal range of the Bakony; pop. in 1870, 14,223, chiefly Magyars. It is on a small affluent of the river Marczal, and contains a castle belonging to the family of the Esterhazys, several churches, synagogues, convents, and hospitals, a Catholic and a Reformed gymnasium, and other institutions of learning. The neighboring country produces wine. Cloth, paper, and stone ware are manufactured.

Pipestone

Pipestone, a S. W. county of Minnesota, drained by tributaries of the Big Sioux and Minnesota rivers; area, 432 sq. m. The population was not returned in the census of 1870. The surface consists of rolling prairies.

Pippi

See Giulio Romano.

Pipsissewa

See Chimaphila.

Pirmasens

Pirmasens, a town of Rhenish Bavaria, 12 m. E. S. E. of Zweibrticken; pop. in 1871, 8,563. It has a Protestant church, with a fine monument of the landgrave Louis IX. of Hesse-Darmstadt. Shoes are the most important of the many articles manufactured here, and are exported to the United States and other countries. The Prussians here defeated the French under Moreau, Sept. 14, 1793.