Corunna (Span. Coru-na). I. A N. W. province of Spain, in Gali-cia, bounded N. and W. by the Atlantic, and bordering on the provinces of Lugo and Pon-tevedra; area, 3,078 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 609,-337. The coast is rugged and irregular, the interior traversed by high mountains, interspersed with fertile valleys and plains, watered by the Ulla, Tambre, Lezaro or Jallas, Man-deo, and Mero, and in some places covered with forests. The principal crops are beans, peas, potatoes, hemp, flax, fruit, and most kinds of grain except wheat and barley. A large proportion of the soil is occupied by pastures. The manufactures are hardware, earthenware, hats, shoes, leather, rope, and sail cloth; ships are also built. Iron, copper, silver, and coal are mined to a small extent. Wild boars and wolves infest the forests. Besides Corunna, the capital, the chief towns are Santiago de Compostela and Ferrol. II. A city (Lat. Coronium), capital of the province, a seaport at the entrance to the estuary of the Mero river, 315 m.
N. W. of Madrid; pop. about 40,000. It is nearly connected with Madrid by rail, a railway being in course of construction intended to connect it with the Leon and Palencia branch line, and through the latter with the main northern trunk, between Valladolid and Burgos. It consists of an upper and a lower town, the former built on the E. side of a small peninsula, and the latter on the isthmus connecting the peninsula with the mainland. The upper town is walled, and contains the citadel, the principal government buildings, and the finest of the churches. The lower quarter, once a mere collection of fishers' huts, is now better built. In this are the theatre, captain general's palace, custom house, arsenal, barracks, and court house. The town also contains a number of convents, two hospitals, a prison, a house of correction, schools of design, mathematics, and navigation, and several literary and charitable institutions. On the N. shore of the peninsula is a lighthouse 92 ft. high, called the tower of Hercules, and supposed to be of Roman construction. It is visible in clear weather from a distance of 60 m. The harbor, formed by Corunna bay, and protected by Fort St. Anthony on an insulated rock at its entrance, and Fort St. Diego on the mainland, is deep, spacious, and safe.
The sea wall, begun in 1862, embracing the whole front of the new town, was completed in 1870, and the former beach has been converted into a public garden. A new dock and a wharf nearly 1,100 ft. long have been built, and other wharves are in course of construction. Handsome private dwellings and public edifices have been erected since 1868, the latter including barracks for 3,500 soldiers, with a military hospital. About 5,000 emigrants embark annually from the port for Havana, Montevideo, and Buenos Ayres. The imports for the year ending Sept. 30,1871, chiefly tobacco, hides, sugar, cocoa, and codfish, amounted to $2,492,814 and the exports, chiefly cattle and eggs, to $2,654,655. The chief branches of industry are ship building, fisheries, particularly for sardines, the salting of provisions, and the manufacture of glass, soap, starch, cotton, cigars, iron, oil cloth, and hats. - The famous Spanish armada was refitted in the bay of Corunna in June, 1588, prior to setting sail for England. On Jan. 16, 1809, a British army under Sir John Moore, after repulsing in an obstinate encounter a numerically superior French force commanded by Marshal Soult, succeeded in embarking here.
The British general was killed in battle by a cannon shot and interred in the citadel, where an inscription to his memory was placed by Soult, to whom the city surrendered three days later. A monument was afterward erected to Sir John Moore by the English government.