Eglantine, an old English name for the sweet brier (rosa rubiginosa, Linn.), which grows plentifully in rich pastures and neglected fields. In deep soils and under favorable circumstances it is not uncommon for the old roots to send up vigorous shoots or suckers 8 or 10 ft. high, which are covered with harsh, crooked pickles. The flowers, which are for the most part borne upon the lower branches, are of a beautiful light rosy color, and full of fragrance. But the chief perfume of the plant is in the foliage, its leaves being beset with russet-colored glands, which on being slightly bruised emit a peculiar scent. The eglantine succeeds well in the garden, if ample room and a deep soil are allowed it, and in such cases it has been known to produce occasionally double flowers. It grows readily from the seeds, and sown in rows the plants have been clipped into shape to form low and ornamental hedge divisions. The species best known in the United States is supposed to be an adventitious one from Europe, and was introduced with a co-species, also fragrant (It. micrantha, Smith), having smaller flowers and a different-shaped fruit or seed vessel.
Both have extended scarcely beyond the seacoast of New England. EGMONT, or Egmond, Lamoral, count of, a soldier and statesman of the Netherlands, born in the castle of La Hamaide, Hainaut, in 1522, beheaded in Brussels, June 5, 1568. He inherited from his mother the title of prince of Gavre and from his father that of count of Egmont, and preferred to be known by the latter. While a boy he was a page at the court of the emperor Charles V. In his 19th year he commanded a troop of horse in the expedition against Algiers. In 1545 he married Sabina of Bavaria, sister of the elector palatine. The next year he was invested with the order of the golden fleece. In 1554 he was placed at the head of the embassy sent to England to solicit the hand of Queen Mary for Philip II. of Spain. He commanded the cavalry of the Spanish army in 1557 on the invasion of France. St. Quentin having been invested, Egmont made a brilliant charge upon the French, who came up to its relief under Montmorency, and defeated them. In 1558 the French under Marshal de Thermes invaded West Flanders, and laid waste the country. Egmont intercepted them at Gravelines on their inarch homeward with their booty, cut their army in pieces, and took the marshal prisoner.
These victories added greatly to his reputation, and he was appointed by Philip II. stadtholder of Flanders and Artois. In this position he favored somewhat the party who were dissatisfied with the king's administration, being swayed alternately by sympathy with the popular movement and by his loyalty to the throne and devotion to the Roman Catholic church. When Margaret of Parma was appointed regent of the Netherlands in 1559, with Granvelle as minister, Egmont and the prince of Orange were made members of the state council. Important affairs of state having been transacted by the regent and Granvelle without consultation with the council, Egmont in 1561 and 1563 joined in letters of remonstrance to the king. His opposition to Granvelle finally forced him to give up his position and leave the country. In 1565 he was sent as envoy to the court of Spain for the purpose of making the condition of the Netherlands better understood. The king made him many promises, but the government did not relent in its severity toward the provinces. On the contrary, nine inquisitors were sent thither to reestablish the inquisition.
Egmont was indignant, and permitted the assembling of the nobles (1566), who declared that they would never submit to the inquisition and founded the league of the Gueux. During the iconoclastic risings which broke out soon after, Egmont obtained from the regent favorable terms for the insurgents who belonged in the provinces over which he was stadtholder. These terms having been ratified by the king, Egmont's confidence in the royal favor was strengthened. He restored the Catholics to the possession of their churches, and restrained and punished the excesses of the Protestants. He aided the royal troops in besieging Valenciennes, renewed his oath of allegiance to the regent, and finally broke off his connection with the prince of Orange and the Gueux. When Philip II. in 1567 sent the duke of Alva with a strong army to take the place of Margaret of Parma, the prince of Orange and other leaders of the people left the country; but Egmont, relying upon his interest at court, remained to look after his estates. He went out to meet the duke of Alva as he approached Brussels, and made him a present; but he was treacherously arrested, Sept. 9, together with the count of Horn. They were tried by the "council of blood," and adjudged guilty of treason.
Egmont met his death with calmness, and was regarded by the people as a martyr in the cause of liberty. - One of Goethe's tragedies is founded upon his history. See Prescott's "History of Philip II.;" Le comte d'Egmont et le comte de Horne, by Juste (Brussels, 1862); and Motley's "Rise of the Dutch Republic."
Eglantine (Rosa rubiginosa).