Granvelle , Antoine Perrenot, cardinal de, a Spanish statesman, born in Besancon, Aug. 20, 1517, died in Madrid, Sept. 21, 1580. He was the son of Nicolas Perrenot, the chancellor and minister of the emperor Charles V. He was educated at Dole, Padua, and Louvain, and mastered seven languages. At the ago of 23 he was appointed canon of Liege cathedral and bishop of Arras. At the council of Trent, in 1545, he defended the emperor's war policy against France, and obtained an appointment as councillor of state. After the battle of Muhlberg (1547) he drew up the treaty of peace between the emperor and the German Protestants, and contrived to retain the landgrave of Hesse a prisoner, contrary to the promise made to him. In 1550 he succeeded his father as chancellor. He accompanied the emperor on his flight from Innspruck in 1552, and displayed great ability in negotiating the treaty of Passau, which followed it. The first service of importance which he rendered Philip, the emperor's son, was in arranging (1553) his marriage with Mary of England. On the accession of Philip II. in 1555, Granvelle became his minister, and delivered on his behalf an eloquent address to the Flemish people. While Philip remained in the Netherlands he was guided by the counsels of his minister.
The regulations in reference to Protestantism, adopted in 1550, were reenacted in 1556. The Spaniards having gained the victory of St. Quentin over the French, Granvelle was instrumental in negotiating the treaty of Ca-teau-Cambresis, which was signed in 1559. Soon afterward Philip II. returned to Spain, and left Margaret of Parma regent of the Netherlands; but with her was associated a council, advisory power in doubtful and important cases being reserved to a consulta consisting of three members of the council. Granvelle was one of this select body, and had the other two completely under his control; and it was soon obvious that he wielded all the power of Spain in the Netherlands. His administration became odious, and his appointment was considered a violation of the law, because he was a foreigner. His paramount object was the restoration of the supremacy of the Catholic church. Spanish troops were retained in the country; the general assembly of the states was not called together; and 13 new bishoprics were created. In 1560 Granvelle was made archbishop of Mechlin, and primate. But what incensed the people most was the preparations for the introduction of the Spanish inquisition.
Granvelle alone was held responsible for these abuses, and the wrath of the nobles and the people was concentrated upon him. In 1561 he was created a cardinal. In 15G3 "William of Orange, Egmont, and Horn united in a formal remonstrance to the king against his proceedings, but without avail. At last even Margaret of Parma yielded to the pressure and joined in the request for his recall. But it was not until Granvelle himself had signified his acquiescence that Philip II. commanded him " to leave the Low Countries for a few days, and go to Burgundy to see his mother." He obeyed the command in 1564, and never returned. He retired to Besancon, and occupied himself with literature and the physical sciences. In 1565 he went to Rome by the king's order, and participated in the election of Pope Pius V. In 1570 he was employed to negotiate the alliance between Spain, Rome, and Venice against the Turks. He next became viceroy of Naples, and in 1575 was recalled to Madrid, where Philip made him president of the supreme council of Italy and Castile. He negotiated the terms of union between Spain and Portugal, and when Philip went to take possession of his new kingdom, Granvelle acted as regent during his absence.
The marriage contract between the infanta Catharine and the duke of Savoy was effected by his management. In 1584 he resigned the archbishopric of Mechlin, to accept the less opulent see of Besancon. He was a patron of letters, enriched the college of Besancon, founded by his father, and contributed largely to support the printing establishment of Plantin at Antwerp. He left a large number of his own letters, of those of foreign ministers, of Charles V., and of Philip, and of state papers and documents. Eighty years afterward they were assorted by the abbe Boissot, forming a collection of 82 volumes. A selection from them has been published by the French government (9 vols. 4to, 1841-'61).