Egret, a name given to those species of white herons which have the feathers of the lower part of the back elongated and their webs disunited, reaching beyond or to the tail, at certain seasons; their forms are also more graceful than those of common herons. They belong to the old genus ardea (Linn.), of the order grailatores, since divided into many subgenera. The great American egret (A. [hero-dias] egretta, Gmel.) is about 37 in. long to end of tail, 40 to end of claws, with an extent of wings of 55 in.; bill 4 1/2 in., tail 6 1/4 tarsus 6; anterior toes 2 3/4, 4, and 3 1/6 in., with the claws, 1/2, 3/4, and 2/3- of an inch respectively; the hind toe 1 1/2, and its claw 1 1/6 in. long; weight about 2 1/4 lbs.; the female is somewhat smaller. The bill is straight, tapering to an acute tip; the head compressed and oblong; neck long and slender; body compressed; feet, tarsus, and tibia long, the latter bare in its lower half. The space between bill and eye, and around the latter, is bare; the plumage is soft and blended; head not crested, though its feathers are elongated, as are those on the lower neck in front; from between the shoulders arises a tuft of long, decurved, and delicate disunited feathers, extending about 10 in. beyond the tail; the wings are moderate, and the tail short, of 12 weak feathers; the bill is bright yellow, feet and claws black, and the plumage white, in some parts slightly tinged with yellow.
This elegant bird breeds from Florida to New York, and along the shores of the gulf of Mexico to Texas, and probably further; it is rarely seen in Massachusetts, and does not appear more than 50 miles inland, unless along the courses of large rivers; it generally breeds in low marshy places, dismal swamps, and the margins of lakes and ponds; the nests are sometimes made on low bushes, and occasionally on sandy islands near the coast, but generally on high trees. The long, silky filaments of the back are hardly to be seen except in the love season, which varies from early spring to midsummer, according to latitude; both sexes possess them, and many are shot during the breeding season to obtain these feathers for ornamental purposes. It feeds by day, on small fishes, Crustacea, and reptiles, which it catches in the shallows and marshes; its flight is well sustained, and its gait and movements are graceful. The nest is made of loose sticks, overhanging the water, and is used for years by the same birds, which annually repair it; the eggs, two or three in number, are 2 1/4 in. long, when freshly laid smooth and pale blue, becoming afterward rough and whitish.
The egret is shy and difficult to obtain, except in the breeding season; many of the young are destroyed by crows and turkey buzzards. - The European egret (A. alba., Gmel.) is about 3 ft. 5 in. long, with pure white plumage. According to Selby, the bill is black or dark brown, yellow at the base and about the nostrils, and the legs are almost black. It is common in southern Europe, but comparatively rare in the northern and central parts; the white herons of Asia are believed to be of this species. The little European egret (A. garzetta, Linn.) is about 22 in. long from bill to end of tail; the plumage is white; from the hind head spring two narrow feathers 4 in. long; the plumes of the back are elongated; the bill and tarsi are black; the tarsus is 4 in. long. This species is confined to the eastern hemisphere, being most abundant in southern Europe, Greece, and northern Africa; it occasionally wanders as far as England. The buff-backed egret (A. Coro-manda, Bodd.) is about 20 in. long, the bill 2 in. and orange yellow; the plumage is white, except the top of the head and front neck, which are buff*, becoming browner as the bird grows older; it is very generally distributed over Asia. The reddish egret (A. [demi-egretta] rufa, Bodd.), of which Peale's egret is believed to be the young, is about 31 in. long, and 4G in extent of wings; the pale bill has a black tip; the iris is white; the feathers of the head and neck are loose and pendent, of a light reddish brown tinged with lilac, fading into brownish white at the tips; the back and wings grayish blue; long feathers of the back yellowish-tipped; pale grayish blue below.
It seems never to go far from the Florida keys, except westward along the gulf of Mexico; it is a plump and graceful bird, and an easy and high flier; it rarely associates with other species; it is probably strictly marine. The nests are made by the middle of April; the eggs are three, of a pale sea-green, and are excellent food. EGYPT (Gr. . Lat. AEgyptus; Heb. Mitzraim ; Coptic, Khami or Kemi), a dependency of the Turkish empire in N. E. Africa, bounded N. by the Mediterranean, and E. by the Bed sea and a direct line from Suez to El-Arish, a seaport town on the Mediterranean. Egypt proper extends S. to the first cataract of the Nile, between Asswan and Philae, lat. 24° 5' N., and W. beyond the oases of the Libyan desert to the frontier of Barca. The area is estimated in an annual publication of the Egyptian government, Le guide general d'Egypte (Alexandria, 1870), at 216,000 sq. m. But the rule of the viceroy has of late also been established over an extensive region to the south, officially called Soudan, which comprises Lower Nubia, Sennaar, Dongola, Taka, Fazo-glu, Kordofan, the provinces of the White Nile, and Khartoom, and since 1805 also the coasts of the Red sea down to and inclusive of the seaport town of Massowah, lat. 15° 34' N. Inclusive of this territory, the area of the Egyptian empire was in 1872 estimated by Regny at 730,000 sq. m.
Egyptian rule was recently extended by Sir Samuel Baker over a vast territory reaching south to the equator. - With the exception of a few small rivers that empty into the Red sea, the Nile is the main irrigator of the country. The White and Blue Nile unite near the city of Khartoom, forming the Nile proper, which assumes a winding N. E. course through Nubia, and receives near El-Damer the Atbara, coming from the southeast. It flows thence in a N. N. W. direction till it reaches El-Gooba, where it turns abruptly S. W., enclosing the northern point of the Ba-yuda desert. At Ambukol it resumes its N. N. W. course, descends the cataract near Kaffir, turns N. N. E., and enters Egypt proper at the island of Philae near Asswan, the ancient Syene, where it descends the famous cataracts, and flows thence unbroken by falls or rapids, and not augmented even by a rivulet, till it reaches the Mediterranean. From the cataracts the river, whose general breadth is about half a mile, runs for 600 m. through a valley bounded by hills varying in height from 300 to 1,200 ft. The average breadth of the valley is 7 or 8 m., its greatest breadth 11m. Anciently the whole of this valley was called Upper Egypt, but afterward the term Middle Egypt was applied to the northern part of it.
About 100 m. from the sea the hills disappear, and the river enters an extensive and perfectly level alluvial plain, where, 12 m. N. of Cairo, it separates into two great streams, which continually diverge until they reach the Mediterranean by mouths about 80 m. apart, the eastern at Da-mietta and the western at Rosetta. This great plain is Lower Egypt. The triangular space enclosed by the two arms of the river and the sea is called the Delta, from its resemblance in shape to the Greek letter A; but the term Delta is also sometimes applied to the whole plain, or to so much of it as consists of fertile land. The greater part of the country consists of deserts, with the exception of the valley of the Nile, a few oases, and the region called Fayoom, which lies at no great distance W. of the Kile, between lat. 29° and 30°, and has a fertile area of 340 sq. m. The largest of the oases, the one most remote from the Nile, is Siwah, the ancient Ammonium, the site of the temple and oracle of Jupiter Ammon. It lies ten days' journey W. of Fayoom, and has an area of only 15 or 20 sq. m.
The desert between the Nile and the Red sea is intersected by chains of mountains, whose highest summits attain an elevation of 6,000 ft. - The most noted lake of Egypt is the Birket el-Keroon, in the N. W. part of Fayoom; it is 30 m. long and from 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 m. broad. The remains of the famous ancient artificial lake Mceris have been identified in the E. part of Fayoom. To the north of the Birket el-Keroon, at the distance of 50 m., are the natron lakes, from which the water evaporates in the dry season, leaving the ground covered with a crust of natron or carbonate of soda. Along the seacoast of the Delta is a series of lagoons stretching for nearly 200 m., of which the principal are Lake Maryoot, the ancient Mareotis, 40 m. long, Lake Boorlos, 30 m. long, and Lake Menzaleh, 50 m. long, with an average breadth of 15 m. From a very ancient period Egypt has abounded in canals, chiefly constructed to facilitate the distribution of the water of the Nile for irrigation. The Mahmoudieh canal, 50 m. long and 100 ft. broad, was made in 1820 to accommodate the commerce between Alexandria and the Nile. Great efforts have been made during the last 20 years to render the country less dependent upon the annual inundation.
The Mahmoudieh canal was connected with about 50 new canals for irrigation, which proved of some service in 1868, when the Nile failed to attain its usual height. The canal across the isthmus of Suez, to unite the Red sea with the Mediterranean, was begun in April, 1859, and opened in November, 1869. (See Canal.) - The most striking geological feature of Egypt is the vast bed of alluvium deposited by the Nile, which covers all Lower Egypt to a depth that probably averages 30 or 40 ft. The predominant rocks are limestone, sandstone, and granite. The great pyramids are built of limestone, and stand on a limestone plateau. This rock extends up the valley of the Nile as far as Esne, and thence to Asswan or Syene sandstone prevails, from the quarries of which most of the temples of Egypt have been built. At Asswan, at the southern extremity of the country, granite predominates, and the quarries there have chiefly furnished the materials for the obelisks and colossal statues of Egypt. The soil is of unsurpassed fertility, and its richness is annually renewed by the inundation of the Nile, which deposits upon the land a coating of mud rendering needless any other manure.
In many parts ploughing is dispensed with, the seed being thrown upon the mud, and sheep, goats, or oxen turned loose in the fields to trample in the grain; though in other parts agriculture is carried on with considerable labor and care, especially where artificial irrigation can be resorted to. The rise of the Nile begins in Egypt in the latter part of June; but it is perceptible at Gondokoro, lat. 5° N., as early as February, at Khartoom in the latter part of March, and at Dongola in May. The inundation reaches its greatest height between Sept. 20 and 30, when it is usually 24 ft. above the low-water level. It remains at that height about 15 days, and then gradually falls, till it is at the lowest about the middle of May. It rises sometimes 30 ft., when it does great damage. If it rises less than 18 ft., a famine is the consequence in some districts not yet under artificial irrigation. The following plants are sown immediately after the inundation begins to subside, and are harvested three or four months later: wheat, barley, beans, peas, lentils, vetches, lupins, clover, flax, lettuce, hemp, coriander, poppies, tobacco, watermelons, and cucumbers.
The following are raised in summer chiefly by artificial irrigation: durra, maize, onions, henna, sugar cane, cotton, coffee, indigo, and madder. Grapes are plentiful, and other fruits abound, of which the most common are dates, figs, pomegranates, apricots, peaches, oranges, lemons, citrons, bananas, mulberries, and olives. There are no forests in Egypt, and few trees of any kind except the palm, of which there are usually groves around the villages. From the absence of forests there are few wild beasts, the principal species being the wolf, fox, jackal, hyaena, wild ass, and several kinds of antelope. The chief domestic animals are camels, horses, asses, horned cattle, and sheep. The hippopotamus is no longer found in Egypt, though it is met with in the Nile above the cataracts, and the crocodile has abandoned the lower part of the river, and is becoming rare even in Upper Egypt, Among the birds are three species of vultures (one of which sometimes measures 15 ft. across the wings), eagles, falcons, hawks, buzzards, kites, crows, linnets, larks, sparrows, and the beautiful hoopoe, which is regarded with superstitious reverence. Pigeons and various kinds of poultry are very abundant. The ostrich is found in the deserts.
Among the reptiles are the cerastes and asp (naya haye), both deadly poisonous. Fishes abound in the Nile and in the lakes, and furnish a common and favorite article of food. Locusts occasionally invade the country and commit great ravages. - The climate of Upper Egypt differs from that of Lower Egypt, which has occasionally considerable rain, while the former is an almost totally rainless district. The average temperature of Lower Egypt ranges between 80° and 90° in summer and 50° and 60° in winter, and that of Upper Egypt between 90° and 100° in summer and 60° and 70° in winter. The most common diseases are dysentery, liver complaints, and ophthalmia, the last being very prevalent. The plague was formerly frequent and virulent, but owing to the sanitary precautions of the government it has not made its appearance since 1843. One of the most disagreeable features of the climate is the khamsin, a hot wind from the desert which prevails for 50 days, beginning generally about May 2, and has a peculiarly oppressive and unhealthy effect. - In 1871 the country was divided into13 provinces, 7 of which belong to Lower Egypt and 6 to Upper Egypt, Middle Egypt being at present only a geographical abstraction.
The provinces of Lower Egypt E. of the Nile are: Kaliubieh, capital Kalioob; Sharkieh, capital Zagazig; Dakalieh, capital Mansoorah; in the Delta: Menoofieh, capital Menoof; Gar-bieh, capital Tanta; W. of the Nile: Beha-reh, capital Damanoor; Gizeh, capital Gizeh. The provinces of Upper Egypt, or Said, are Beni-Sooef, Minieh, Sioot, Girgeh, Kenneh, and Esne; they are named after their capital cities, with the exception of Girgeh, of which Sohag is the capital. To these has recently been added the province of the Isthmus, capital Ismailia. The cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Suez, Port Said, Damietta, Rosetta, and Kos-seir are exempt from the provincial administration and placed under governors of their own. Special governors were also appointed in 1865 at Massowah and Sooakin on the Red sea, who are dependent on the governor general of the southern provinces (residing in Khartoom), but are authorized to report directly to Cairo all important matters concerning the Red sea. Subordinate to the governor of a province (mudir) are the heads of districts (kosafs) and cantons (nasirs); the heads of single localities bear the title sheikh el-beled, which is also that of the magistrates of the wards of larger cities.
Anciently, under its native rulers and their Persian, Greek, and Roman successors, the country was divided into districts called nomes, varying in number at different eras from 36 to 56 or 58. - A government census in 1866 officially stated the number of inhabitants at 4,848,529. In March, 1871, the population of Egypt proper amounted, according to Regny, to 5,115,367 natives and 88,038 foreigners; total, 5,203,405; the foreign population consisting of 34,000 Greeks, 24,000 Italians, 17,000 Frenchmen, 6,500 Austrians and Germans, and 6,000 Englishmen. With the exception of 600,000 Christians, namely, 350,000 Copts and 250,-000 Franks, the inhabitants are all Mohammedans. They call themselves Arabs, though they are probably in great part descended from the ancient Egyptians: They are handsome, well made, and courteous. In northern Egypt they are of a yellowish complexion, growing darker toward the south, until the hue becomes a deep bronze. Mr. Lane speaks highly of their mental capacity, and gives them credit for uncommon quickness of apprehension and readiness of wit. They are highly religious, and are generally honest, cheerful, humane, and hospitable.
The Arabs of pure blood belonging to Egypt are chiefly Bedouins who dwell in tents in the desert, and number about 400,000. The native Christians, termed Copts, are the recognized descendants of the ancient inhabitants. They are generally employed as clerks and accountants in government and mercantile offices. Besides these there are about 20,000 Turks, the ruling class, and Armenians, Berbers or Nubians, and Jews. - Agriculture is the chief pursuit, and furnishes all the staples of export. The exports of Egypt amounted in 1861 to $19,465,000; in 1865 to $87,679,000; in1867 to $51,950,000; in 1869 to $55,969,312; in1871 to about $52,000,000. The exceptional amount in 1865 was altogether due to the English demand for cotton, which in that year was exported from Egypt to the value of $77,215,000, while in 1867 it fell to $33,000,000, and in 1868 to $29,000,000. Next to cotton, the most valuable article of export is wheat, which in 1868 was exported to the value of $6,548,000. The export of beans, peas, lentils, barley, and dates is also increasing. The export of sugar promises to become of great importance; it rose from $200,000 in 1867 to $855,000 in 1868, and has considerably increased since.
The imports amounted to $26,800,000 in 1865, and to $29,000,000 in 1867. The principal articles are timber, copper, coal, woollen, cotton, and silk goods, ivory, amber, gums, drugs, tinware, paper, oil, jewelry, sugar, glass, tobacco, spices, and coffee. The foreign commerce is chiefly with Great Britain, which receives about 75 per cent. of the Egyptian exports, and with France, Germany, and Austria. An extensive trade by means of caravans is maintained with the interior of Africa. The manufacture of firearms, and of cotton, silk, and woollen goods, is carried on extensively in establishments founded and directed by the government. The length of the state railways in Egypt in January, 1872, amounted to 649 m., 286 m. of which had double tracks. The only private railway, that from Alexandria to Ram-leh, is 5 m. long. The railway from Cairo to Suez was abandoned in 1868. The telegraphic lines in operation in 1872 were 3,900 m. (560 m. being private), and had 8,300 m. of wire. Numerous sailing vessels and smaller craft ply on the Nile and the navigable canals, especially in Lower Egypt, where the principal towns are beginning to maintain regular steamboat communication. The movement of shipping in the Suez canal in 1871 was 765 vessels, of an aggregate burden of 761,410 tons.
The number of arrivals at the port of Alexandria was 2,921 vessels, and at Port Said 1,275 vessels, exclusive of 87 men-of-war. There were forwarded in 1871 by the Egyptian mail 1,490,-000 letters, by the Austrian 124,000, by the Italian 135,000, by the Greek 30,000. - At the head of the government stands the khedive, a vassal of the sultan of Turkey, whose office is hereditary from father to son. According to the hatti-sherif and firman of investiture of 1841, Egypt must maintain the fundamental laws of the Ottoman empire, raise taxes in the name of the sultan, issue coin with his name, and pay an annual tribute. The parliament consists of deputies elected for a period of three years. The central government is vested in the ministries of foreign affairs, finance, war, navy, public works, and the interior. The cabinet of the khedive comprises a councillor, a secretary, a seal-bearer, a treasurer, and a chief of interpreters. There are also councils of agriculture, of commerce, and for the preservation of antiquities. There are four principal courts of justice, whose seat is at Cairo: that of the chief of police, which summarily decides petty cases; that of the cadi, or chief judge; that of the mufti, or chief doctor of the law; and that of the pasha's divan.
There is also a cadi in each town and village, who dispenses justice on religious transgressions, inheritance, right of succession, etc.; and each province and subdivision of the country has a mudir or governor who administers the criminal law. The revenue increased from £4,813,970 in 1864 to £10,571,048 in 1873, derived from taxes on land, tithes, tolls, etc, and from railways and customs duties. The total revenue in the 10 years ending Sept. 10, 1873, was £98,102,720, and the expenditure £112,-561,784, of which about £6,000,000 were tribute to the sultan, £10,000,000 the cost of railways, and £16,000,000 that of the Suez canal. A new loan of £11,700,000 was contracted in 1873, making the total debt £49,000,000. The army was formerly limited to 18,000 men, but in consideration of the increase of the annual tribute from 80,000 purses to 150,000, under Said Pasha, permission was given to raise the army to 30,000. The navy in 1870 consisted of 12 steamers (3 yachts, 2 frigates, 2 corvettes, 4 screw gunboats, and 1 aviso). - Schools for primary instruction are connected with the mosques.
The number of pupils is rapidly increasing, and in 1871 was estimated at 60,000. The university of Cairo, called el-Ashar (the Blossom), has students from all parts of Africa, from Turkey, and even from the Sunda islands. Education has made great progress during the reign of Ismail Pasha, especially since the establishment in 1868 of government schools in the large towns. These schools were attended in 1870 by about 4,000 pupils who received support from the government. The schools embrace both elementary and secondary education. In the secondary department the students take a three years' preparatory course, after which they are transferred to one of the special schools. These special schools are : a polytechnic school (which prepares the way for either the school of administration or the military academy), a law school, a philological and arithmetical school, a school of arts and industry, a medical school, and a naval school. In 1871 Prof. Brugsch, of the university of Got-tingen, was called by the Egyptian government to Cairo, to establish there an academy for archaeology, and in particular for Egyptological studies. The periodical press is still in its infancy, and almost entirely in the hands of foreigners.
There were published in 1872, in the Arabic language, an official paper and a weekly journal called Madi el-Nil ("Valley of the Nile "), in Cairo, and a number of French, Italian, and Greek papers in Alexandria, two of which, L'Egypte and Manifesto Gior-naliero, were dailies. A press bureau is connected with the department of foreign affairs. - The history of Egypt divides itself into six great periods, each characterized by a different race of rulers : 1, that of the Pharaohs, or native kings; 2, of the Persians; 3, of the Ptolemies (Greeks); 4, of the Romans; 5, of the Arabs; 6, of the Turks. The main sources of its history under the Pharaohs are the Scriptures, the Greek writers Herodotus, Diodorus, and Eratosthenes, some fragments of the writings of Manetho, an Egyptian priest of the 3d century B. C, and the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the monuments, that is, on the temples, tombs, and other buildings of ancient date. From works written on rolls of papyrus, found in the tombs, information has also been derived by-recent Egyptologists. From the Scriptures we learn that the Hebrew patriarch Abraham went into Egypt with his family because of a famine that prevailed in Canaan. He found the country ruled by a Pharaoh, the Egyptian term for king.
The date of Abraham's visit, according to Usher's chronology of the Hebrew text of the Bible, was about 1920 13. 0.; according to the Septuagint, about 2550; while Bunsen fixes it at 2870. Nearly two centuries later Joseph, a descendant of Abraham, was sold into Egypt as a slave to the captain of the guards of another Pharaoh, whose prime minister or grand vizier the young Hebrew eventually became. Joseph's father, Jacob, and his family, to the number of 70, accompanied, as Bunsen conjectures, by 1,000 or 2,000 dependants, followed their fortunate kinsman into Egypt, where they settled in a district called the land of Goshen. There they remained until their numbers had multiplied into two or three millions, when under the lead of Moses they revolted and quitted Egypt to conquer and possess the neighboring land of Canaan. The date of their exodus, according to Usher, was 1491 B. C, after a sojourn in Egypt of about 210, or at most of 430 years. Bunsen assigns the date to 1320, and maintains the duration of the sojourn in Egypt to have been 1,434 years.
The most recent Egyptologists generally agree that it occurred about 1300 B. C., and identify the Pharaoh of the exodus with Merneptah I. (pronounced Mernephtah in Lower Egypt), the Menephthes of Manetho, one of the last kings of the 19th dynasty. From the exodus, for several centuries, the relations between the Hebrews and the Egyptians appear to have been generally friendly, until in the 5th year of the reign of Rehoboam, about 970, Shishak, king of Egypt, conquered and plundered Jerusalem, an event the occurrence of which is attested and confirmed by the monuments. - The first of the Greek authorities upon Egypt, Herodotus, visited the country about the middle of the 5th century B. C. His knowledge of its history was derived from conversation with the priests of various cities, with whom he talked by means of interpreters. He did not himself understand the language, and his Greek guides appear to have told him many vulgar fables and legends, while what he gathered from the priests he seems to have imperfectly understood. They told him, he says, that Menes was the first king of Egypt, and was succeeded by 330 monarchs, of whom one, Nito-cris, was a queen.
None of them were distinguished, and none of them left any monuments worthy of note, except Moeris, the last of the 330, who constructed the artificial lake which bears his name. He was succeeded by Sesos-tris, who conquered Ethiopia and the greater part of Europe and Asia. His successors were Pheron, Proteus (who was contemporary with the Trojan war), Rhampsinitus, Cheops, Ceph-ren, and Mycerinus. The last three kings built the three great pyramids. Mycerinus was succeeded by Asychis, and Asychis by Anysis, in whose reign Egypt was conquered by the Ethiopians, who held it for 50 years under King Sabaco. At the expiration of the half century they voluntarily abandoned the country and retired to Ethiopia. The next king of Egypt was Sethos, between whom and the first king Menes, the priests told Herodotus, there had been 341 generations, a period of 11,340 years. Sethos was succeeded by 12 kings, who reigned jointly, and together built the labyrinth, which Herodotus thought surpassed all the works of the Greeks, and was even more wonderful than the pyramids themselves.
After the lapse of some years, Psammetichus, one of the 12 kings, dethroned the others and made himself sole sovereign of Egypt. He was succeeded by Necho, Psammis, and Apries, the last of whom Herodotus calls the most prosperous king that ever ruled over Egypt. But in the 25th year of his reign a rebellion broke out which was headed by Amasis. Apries was defeated and put to death, and Amasis became king. Amasis was succeeded by his son Psammenitus, at the very beginning of whose reign (525) Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Persians under Cambyses. Diodorus, the next of our Greek authorities, was in Egypt about 20 B. C. Like Herodotus, he begins the line of Egyptian kings with Menes, who, he says, was succeeded by 52 monarchs, reigning 1,400 years. These were succeeded by Busiris I., and seven or eight generations later by Busiris II., who built Thebes. Later still reigned Osymandyas, and after eight more generations Uchoreus, who built Memphis, and after 15 more generations was succeeded by Myris or Moeris. Diodorus also relates the exploits of the great conqueror Sesostris, whom he calls Sesoosis. He computes the whole number of native sovereigns of Egypt at 470 kings and 5 queens, and the duration of the native monarchy at 4,700 years.
Eratosthenes, who died about 196 B. C, was a native of Cyrene, and was made librarian of the Alexandrian library by Ptolemy III. He wrote a work on universal chronology, fragments of which have been preserved by Syn-cellus and others. His computation of Egyptian chronology, so far as it goes, has been adopted by Bunsen. Manetho was high priest of Sebennytus about 280 B. C. He wrote a history of Egypt for the information of the Greeks, of which only some extracts have reached us in the works of later writers, who do not agree in their transcription of the most important part of these remains, which is a list of the dynasties and sovereigns of Egypt from the earliest period to the end of the Persian rule. But notwithstanding the occasional discrepancies produced by careless or fraudulent copyists, these "dynasties" of Manetho are of the highest value to Egyptian history, and their general authenticity has been fully established by comparison with the monuments. There were 31 dynasties which reigned successively in Egypt, numbering upward of 300 kings, the sum of the years of whose reigns from Menes to Nectanebo II. (about 350 B. C.), the last king of the 30th dynasty, which was succeeded by the last Persian, was 3,555 years. " This succession of time," says Bun-sen, "the vastest hitherto established anywhere in the old world, is now also the best authenticated.
It is based upon lists of kings and their regnal years; and these lists are corroborated and elucidated by contemporary monuments up to the 4th dynasty, with slight breaks; an authentication which is as unexampled as its extent." The era of Menes,\ according to Bunsen, was 3643 B. 0.; according to Lepsius, 3893; according to Brugsch, 4455; according to Mariette, 5004. Wilkinson remarks of Menes that the frequent occurrence of a similar name in early history, as Manes, the first king of Lydia, the Phrygian Manis, the Minos of Crete, the Indian Menu, the Thibetan Mani, the Siamese Manu, the German Mannus, and others, may seem to assign him a place among mythical beings; but that the Egyptians themselves believed him to be a real personage, and accepted the recorded events of his reign as undoubted facts. It is still in dispute among Egyptologists whether the first 17 dynasties which succeeded Menes were consecutive. It is maintained however by the latest writers, that the dynasties, with inconsiderable exceptions, were consecutive, and that the kings enumerated reigned over the whole of Egypt. In the following table we give a list of the dynasties with their capitals, the duration of their reigns, and the periods of their accession according to Mariette :
Great American Egret (Ardea egretta).
Great White Egret (Ardea alba), and Little Egret (A. garzetta).
Reddish Egret (Ardea rufa).
Date B. C.
Of the 1st dynasty, founded by Menes, no monuments exist. The second king, Teta, is mentioned in later records as having built a palace at Memphis and as the author of books on surgery. The fifth king, Hespu, was the author of sacred writings. The 2d dynasty comprised nine kings, of whom the second, Kekeu, built the pyramid at Sakkarah, the oldest monument in Egypt. He also established, it is said, the worship of some sacred animals, among others the bull Apis, who was considered to be a living manifestation of the god Ptah. The eighth king of this dynasty, Sesocris, is said to have been a giant. Some remains of sculpture made in the latter reigns of this dynasty have been found, marked by a rudeness of style showing that Egyptian art was still imperfectly formed. The 3d dynasty, whose seat was at Memphis, was founded by the earliest of Egyptian conquerors, Seker-nefer-ke, who subdued the Lybians. Snefru, the last but one of the dynasty, subdued some of the nomadic tribes of Arabia. The pictures in the tombs of his reign show Egyptian civilization as completely organized as it was 4,000 years later. Nearly all the animals now used by man were domesticated, and the Egyptian language seems to have been completely formed.
The 4th dynasty was like the 3d of Memphis, and the three great pyramids were built by three of its kings, Khufu, Shafra, and Menkara. Khufu was warlike, and Avon victories over the Ann, a people of northern Arabia. These kings built also the great sphinx at Gizeh, which was probably finished in the reign of Shafra, and near it a vast temple which was for ages buried in the sand of the desert, but has recently been discovered by M. Mariette. The splendor and wealth of Egypt seem to have been very great under this dynasty, but the people were oppressed and became rebellious, and the dynasty ended in a revolution about 3951 B. C. The 5th dynasty came originally from Elephantine, and numbered nine kings, whose reigns seem to have been prosperous and peaceable. Many monuments of this period remain, and from the sculptures and the paintings in the tombs it is evident that a high state of civilization existed, and that art had attained a remarkable degree of excellence. Some of the writings of this age on sheets of papyrus have been found in the tombs.
The national library of France possesses a book dated in the reign of Assa-Tatkera, the last king but one of this dynasty, written by an old man of the royal family named Ptah-hotep. It is a sort of handbook of good manners for young people, a treatise on practical morality, somewhat in the style and tone of the writings of Confucius. Filial obedience is inculcated as the basis of all good order. On the death of the last king of the 5th dynasty, a new family, of Memphian origin, came to the throne. The first king, Ati, was, it is said, after a stormy reign of 30 years, assassinated by his guards. His son and successor, Pepi Merira, was very powerful and warlike, and has left monuments in all parts of Egypt. He conquered the Wa-Wa, a nomadic negro nation who had invaded Egypt. A second Pepi, surnamed Nefer-kera, is said to have reigned 100 years, but of this long reign little is known except that toward its end troubles broke out, the most serious and violent that had yet occurred in Egypt. The next king, Mentemsaf, was assassinated after a reign of a year. His sister Neit-aker, whom the Greek writers called Nitocris, was celebrated both for beauty and wisdom. She seized the reins of government, and for 12 years struggled energetically against the revolutionary party.
At the end of that time she invited the murderers of her brother to a banquet in a subterranean gallery, and drowned them all by letting in the waters of the Nile upon them through a secret culvert. She soon after committed suicide to avoid the vengeance of their partisans. With her ended the 6th dynasty. A period of convulsion, dismemberment, and weakness succeeded, which lasted 436 years, and during which four dynasties reigned of whose history scarcely anything is known. The primitive art of Egypt attained its highest point under the 6th dynasty; but for more than four centuries afterward art and civilization seem to have been eclipsed by circumstances of which we can only conjecture that the kingdom had been subdued by foreign invaders. Memphis and Heracleopolis were the capitals during this dark period. It terminated with the 10th dynasty, or nearly 20 centuries after Menes. These 20 centuries comprise the period known among modern Egyptologists as the old empire. A new monarchy, which Egyptologists call the middle empire, began 3064 B. C. with the accession of the 11th dynasty, whose capital was Thebes. That city seems to have been founded during the period of anarchy, or at least of darkness, which followed the extinction of the 6th dynasty.
From it came the six kings of the 11th dynasty, whose names were alternately Entep and Men-tu-hotep, and who carried on for nearly two centuries an energetic struggle with the kings of the Delta, who had set up a separate kingdom and were perhaps foreign conquerors. The end of the struggle was the subjection of all Egypt to the Theban dynasty, one of whose monarchs is constantly designated on the monuments by the epithet "great." The 12th dynasty was also Theban, and was probably related to the 11th. All its monarchs were called Osortasen or Amenemhe, except the last, a queen named Ra-sebek-nefru. Its epoch was one of prosperity, of peace at home and of conquest abroad. Osortasen I. made great acquisitions in Arabia and in Nubia. The record of his Arabian exploits is engraved on the rocks of Sinai. Osortasen III. was also a great conqueror, and subjugated Ethiopia. Among the works of this dynasty were the labyrinth and Lake Moeris. This lake, of which some remains yet exist, was the work of Amenemhe III., and showed a high degree of engineering skill. The art of sculpture under this dynasty was brought to a degree of perfection not subsequently surpassed. Its chief characteristics were delicacy, elegance, and harmony of proportion.
The history of the 13th dynasty, which lasted from 2851 to 2398 B. C, was one long series of revolutions and internal and external troubles. Its kings were 16 in number, nearly all being named either Sevek-hotep or Nofre-hotep. No building of this dynasty remains, and the history of its kings is consequently very obscure. Toward its close, about 2400 B. C, a rival and probably a rebel line seems to have established itself at Xois in the Delta, where it reigned for 184 years, and constituted the 14th dynasty. This division of the nation into two hostile kingdoms doubtless facilitated and perhaps instigated the conquest of Egypt by the Hyksos or shepherd kings, who invaded the country about 2214, and soon made themselves masters of it, and ruled it for four centuries. According to Mariette and others, these Hyksos were a combination of the nomadic hordes of Arabia and Syria. The chief of them, the tribe that led the rest, were the Hittites of the Bible, who are called Khitas by the Egyptian monuments. They treated the Egyptians with great cruelty, and defaced and destroyed the temples and other monuments with savage violence. Their kings established their capital at Avaris on the northeastern frontier, where they maintained a powerful garrison.
These monarchs formed the 15th, 16th, and 17th dynasties. In course of time, like the Tartars in China, they were subdued by the superior civilization of the people they had conquered, and adopted Egyptian manners and names. The last king of the 17th dynasty, whose name was Apepi, reigned 61 years, and he is considered by many authorities the Pharaoh in whose reign Joseph came into Egypt and was made governor over all the land. Soon after the conquest by the shepherds many of the Egyptians took refuge in Ethiopia, whence in time they gradually returned and founded a native kingdom at Thebes, which probably paid tribute to the shepherds, who remained directly dominant in Middle and Lower Egypt. Of these Theban kings we know the names of only two, Tiaaken and Karnes. The shepherd king Apepi required his vassal Tiaaken to worship his Canaanitish god Sutekh or Set, whom he had added to the Egyptian pantheon and to whom he had built a temple. The Theban refused, and war began. The contest was long and severe.
It continued through the reign of Tiaaken and of his successor Kames, and terminated in that of Ahmes, the son of Kames. The shepherds were driven at last into their great fortress Avaris, where they were besieged by the Egyptians, and were finally permitted by treaty to depart into Palestine, though a portion of them were allowed to remain and cultivate a district in the east of Lower Egypt, in much the same way as the Israelites were allowed to settle in the land of Goshen. After the expulsion of the shepherds, King Ahmes, who had married an Ethiopian princess, turned his arms toward Nubia, which had revolted, and in a few battles completely subdued the rebels. The remainder of his reign was occupied in works of peace, in rebuilding the temples and the palaces destroyed by the shepherds. The civilization of Egypt appears to have revived immediately with great force, and trade, agriculture, and the arts to have received a fresh and vigorous expansion. The disasters and depression of four or five centuries of foreign rule seem to have been repaired in a few years.
The buildings of this period are among the best in Egypt, and jewels of great richness and of incomparable workmanship have recently been found on the mummy of Queen Aah-hotep, the mother of Kames. Ahmes is considered the founder of the 18th dynasty, the greatest and most magnificent that ever reigned in Egypt (1703-1462 B. C.; according to Rawlinson much later, 1525-1324). With it opens the third historical period, known as the new empire. From this time for several centuries Egypt was one of the greatest powers of the world, and her influence was strongly felt by all surrounding nations. Her kings made great efforts to conquer Asia, from which quarter experience had shown that danger was chiefly to be apprehended. They also maintained the traditional policy, inherited from the kings of the 12th dynasty, of endeavoring to subjugate the whole valley of the Nile, which they regarded as belonging legitimately to Egypt. During the whole period of this dynasty, therefore, their armies were waging war either to the south or to the northeast.
Ahmes conquered Canaan, and his successor Amen-hotep, called Amenophis. by the Greeks, subdued a large part of Arabia. The next king, Thothmes I., defeated the Rotennu or Syrians near Damascus, crossed the Euphrates, and subdued Mesopotamia, which the Egyptians called Naharaina. In these wars the Egyptians first learned the use of horses, which seem previously to have been unknown to them, but which throve exceedingly in the rich pastures of the valley of the Nile, and as well as chariots played from that time forward a very conspicuous part in their wars. Thothmes I. reigned 21 years, and was succeeded by his son Thothmes II., whose reign was short. His successor was his brother Thothmes III., a child, whose elder sister Hatasu (or Amen-set) governed for many years in his name. Her reign was brilliant, and distinguished by the conquest of Yemen or Arabia Felix, a rich and fertile country, the possession of which was always greatly coveted by the Egyptian mon-archs. Among the works of Hatasu are the temple of Deir el-Bahri and the two great obelisks of Karnak, erected to the memory of her father. Under Thothmes III. Egypt attained the summit of her glory and power.
Her internal affairs were well administered, and her empire extended over the countries now called Nubia, Abyssinia, Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia. A great fleet, manned probably chiefly by Phoenician sailors, was created on the Mediterranean, with which Cyprus and Crete and the islands of the archipelago, the southern coasts of Greece, and probably the south of Italy, were conquered, and all northern Africa as far west as Algeria, where monuments of Thothmes III. have been found. In Egypt itself his monuments are very numerous, and are all in the best style of architecture and of the highest excellence of workmanship. He was succeeded by Amen-hotep or Amenophis II., whose reign was short, as was that of his successor Thothmes IV. The next king, Amen-hotep III., reigned at least 36 years, and was a great builder. His monuments are remarkable for their grandeur and for the perfection of their sculpture. He built the temple at Luxor and made great additions to that at Karnak, and erected the famous colossal statue at Thebes known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of Memnon. His son and successor Amen-hotep IV.,whose mother, Queen Taia, was not an Egyptian, but a woman of some fair-haired, blue-eyed northern race, attempted, apparently under her influence, to reform the religion of Egypt, and to establish in place of polytheism the worship of one God. He closed the temples and effaced the images of the deities, abandoned Thebes and established his capital at a place now called Tell el-Amarna, where he erected monuments on which the ceremonies of his new worship are represented, bearing a singular resemblance to the external forms of Israelitish worship in the wilderness as described in the books of Moses. The persecution of the Israelites which led to their exodus seems to have begun shortly after this period; and it has been conjectured that the monotheism of Amen-hotep IV. may have had its origin in Hebrew influence, and that the reaction which followed his attempt at religious reformation may have caused the persecution.
But the history of Egypt at this period is still very obscure, and nothing is known with certainty except that after the death of Amen-hotep IV. the kingdom became a prey to factions, whose chiefs seized the supreme power and followed each other at short intervals. Finally, however, the legitimate heir to the throne, Har-em-Hebi, the last son of Amen-hotep III., established his authority and reigned for nearly 40 years. With him ended the glorious 18th dynasty. The first Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty was Rameses L, a grandson of Har-em-Hebi. His reign was very short, and he was succeeded by Seti I., the Sethos of the Greek writers, who seems to have been not his son but his son-in-law, and to have been, strangely enough, of the shepherd race who still remained settled in the eastern part of the Delta. He was one of the greatest of the Pharaohs, and was distinguished not only as a conqueror but as a builder. He erected the great temple of Osiris at Abydos, brought to light by recent excavations, and built also the famous "hall of columns" in the palace at Karnak. On the walls of this vast ball his warlike exploits are depicted in an immense series of magnificent sculptures.
The Asiatic subjects of Egypt had revolted during the recent period of confusion, and Seti in a series of campaigns, carried as far as the mountains of Armenia, chastised and subdued them and reestablished the supremacy of Egypt over western Asia. He reigned probably about 30 years, and was succeeded by his son Rameses II., whose reign lasted for 66 or 67 years. Rameses II. was the greatest builder among the Pharaohs. The two magnificent subterranean temples at Ipsambul in Nubia, the Ramesseum of Thebes, a large part of the temples of Karnak and Luxor, and the small temple at Abydos, are his works. He built also large edifices at Memphis, at Ta-nis, and in the Fayoom. He was also a great warrior, and made many campaigns against the tribes of the Upper Nile, who revolted at the beginning of his reign and were subdued with difficulty. While he was engaged with them in Ethiopia the subject nations of Asia deemed it a good opportunity to throw off the Egyptian yoke, and Armenia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Syria all revolted at once, probably by concert, and drove out the Egyptian garrisons. The Khitas or Hittites, the old enemies of Egypt, headed the rebellion, which was only subdued after a long contest, in which Rameses won high renown by his personal prowess.
From these wars, and from those of his predecessors Seti and Thothmes, the Greek writers formed the legend of Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror, whose name was a modification of Sesu-Ra, a title given by the people for some unknown reason to Rameses during his life. The Greek accounts, which represent Sesostris as having conquered Media, Persia, Bactria, and India, are mere fables; the armies of the Pharaohs never penetrated much beyond the Tigris. Nor are the Greek legends of the internal government of Egypt under Sesostris confirmed by the real annals of Rameses, who seems to have been a cruel tyrant, and to have built his great monuments by the forced labor of prisoners of war and by oppressing his own subjects, especially the Semitic tribes who under his predecessors had settled in the Delta and were peaceably cultivating the land. Among these were the Hebrews, who had now grown very numerous, and whose increase Egyptian tyranny finally sought to check by dooming all their male children to death. The last days of this monarch show a marked decline in the arts, especially of sculpture, and also a decay of military power.
Egypt was invaded by men of northern race, apparently Pelasgians, who came by sea and laid waste Lower Egypt. They finally seized the western part of the Delta and drove out the native inhabitants, and when the aged Rameses died a considerable part of his kingdom was in the hands of these foreign barbarians. He was succeeded by his son Merneptah, who established his capital at Memphis, and at the very beginning of his reign had a contest with the northern settlers of the Delta, who sought to extend their dominion over all Egypt, but were finally defeated. A short time after this struggle is supposed to have occurred the exodus of the Israelites, which was a great blow to Egypt by depriving it of millions of industrious people, not to speak of the calamities described in the Scripture narrative. A few years later, while Merneptah still reigned, another disaster befell Egypt. A body of foreigners employed in forced labor at the granaries revolted to the number of 80,000, and called to their aid the Khitas, who invaded Egypt with such force that the king could not resist them, but retired to Upper Egypt, where he died, leaving the country full of foreign invaders and his son and heir Seti, a boy five years old, concealed for safety in Ethiopia. On the death of Merneptah a prince of the royal family usurped the throne, and succeeded in a few years in driving out the foreigners.
His son Merneptah II. succeeded him, and was for a time recognized as king by Prince Seti, who received from him the title of viceroy of the southern provinces. But on arriving at manhood Seti claimed the throne and succeeded in attaining it. His reign was long, but no particulars of it are known. He died without children in 1288, and with him ended the 19th dynasty. Seti II. was succeeded by Nekht-Set, the founder of the 20th dynasty, whose reign was short and unimportant, but whose son and successor Rameses III. was one of the most eminent of the Pharaohs. He was a great soldier, though his wars were entirely defensive ones. His military genius preserved the empire from the barbarians who attacked it on every side. After his death an obscure period of a century and a half occurred, during which there were 14 or more kings named Rameses, under whom the kingdom was dismembered and again overrun by foreigners. A rival dynasty, the 21st, arose at Tanis in Lower Egypt, and after a prolonged struggle with the Pharaohs of Thebes succeeded in establishing their authority over all Egypt. One of this dynasty, whose name was Psiu-en-san, bestowed his daughter in marriage on Solomon, king of Israel. This dynasty lasted only 130 years, and was succeeded by the 22d, whose seat was at Bubastis, and whose names are almost all Assyrian, such as Nimrod, Tiglath, and Na-bonasi. The first of this dynasty was She-shonk, the Shishak of the Bible, who conquered Judah and plundered Jerusalem about 970. The duration of this dynasty was 170 years, and it was succeeded in 810 by the 23d dynasty, whose capital was Tanis. It comprised only four kings, though there were several pretenders and usurpers whose names are found on the monuments.
The 24th dynasty consisted of a single king, Bokenranf, the Bocchoris of the Greeks, who reigned six years at Sais. He was succeeded by the 25th dynasty, the founder of which was Shabaka, an Ethiopian, the Sabaco of the Greeks, the So of the Bible, who about 725 invaded Egypt with an army of Nubians and negroes and conquered it completely. He took Bokenranf prisoner, and to strike terror into the people caused him to be publicly burned alive. This Ethiopian dynasty consisted of four kings and lasted 50 years, during most of which term it was at war with the Assyrians, by whom Egypt was repeatedly invaded and Conquered. The last Ethiopian king, Rot-Amen, at last voluntarily evacuated Egypt and retired to the upper Nile. Two years of anarchy followed, at the end of which Egypt was ruled for 15 years by a confederacy of 12 chiefs, one of whom, Psammetik (Psamme-tichus), at the end of that period dethroned his colleagues, expelled the foreigners, and made himself master of all Egypt from the cataracts to the sea. He founded the 26th dynasty, whose capital was Sais, and whose duration was 138 years. Under this dynasty Egypt, according to the Greek writers, was more prosperous than she had ever been before.
She became wealthy by trade with the Greeks and other foreigners who now flocked into her ports, and who were enlisted in great numbers as mercenaries in her army. But her national spirit was corrupted; the military caste, disgusted by the favor shown to foreigners, emigrated in a body to Ethiopia; and when about 525, at the beginning of the reign of Psammetik III., the country was invaded by the warlike Persians led by Cambyses, little resistance was offered by a people who had lost all aptitude for arms, and Egypt became a Persian province governed by a satrap. The people frequently revolted and were as often subdued, but at length, about 405, they succeeded in driving out the Persians, and with the aid of Greek auxiliaries maintained their independence under a series of native monarchs, the last of whom was Nectanebo II., who was conquered and dethroned by Ochus or Artaxerxes III., in 346. Egypt continued a Persian province only till 332, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. - Of the manners and customs, mode of life, and social condition of the ancient Egyptians, we can form a very satisfactory opinion from the representations on the monuments.
It is evident from their testimony that at a very early age the Egyptians were a highly civilized people, wealthy, industrious, with a fully organized society, and great proficiency in arts, manufactures, and agriculture. The fertile soil of the Nile valley was highly cultivated. A great number of workmen were employed in weaving and dyeing rich stuffs. The arts of working in metals, of making porcelain and glass, and of preparing enamel and mastic for mosaics, had attained a high degree of perfection. The rich products of Egyptian industry were exported to the most distant countries. The progress of the Egyptians in sculpture and painting was hampered by religious restraints, which prevented their development beyond a point which was early reached. In architecture, however, they occupy perhaps the most distinguished place among the nations. No people has equalled them in the grandeur, the massiveness, or the durability of their structures. A competent authority, Fergusson, the author of the "Illustrated Handbook of Architecture," says: "Taken altogether, perhaps it may be safely asserted that the Egyptians were the most essentially a building people of all those we are acquainted with, and the most generally successful in all they attempted in this way.
The Greeks, it is true, surpassed them in refinement and beauty of detail, and in the class of sculpture with which they ornamented their buildings, and the Gothic architects far excelled them in constructive cleverness; but besides these, no other style can be put in competition with them. At the same time neither Grecian nor Gothic architects understood more perfectly all the gradations of art, and the exact character that should be given to every form and every detail. They understood, also, better than any other nation, how to use sculpture in combination with architecture, and to make their colossi and avenues of sphinxes group themselves into parts of one great design, and at the same time to use historical paintings, fading by insensible degrees into hieroglyphics on the one hand, and into sculpture on the other, linking the whole together with the highest class of phonetic utterance, and with the most brilliant coloring, thus harmonizing all these arts into one great whole, unsurpassed by anything the world has seen during the 30 centuries of struggle and aspiration that have elapsed since the brilliant days of the great kingdom of the Pharaohs." - Of the religious system of the Egyptians we possess scanty information.
The people were of a peculiarly devout character, and their daily lives, as well as their language, literature, art, and sciences, were strongly influenced by religion. In the earliest ages they recognized only one God, who had no beginning and would have no end; who made all things, and was not himself made. To the last the priests retained this doctrine, and taught it privately to a select few. But in the course of time it became unknown to the multitude, who began to worship the symbols under which the attributes of God were represented. The oldest temples, some of which Mariette has discovered near the pyramids, were without idols or sculptures of any kind. But this primitive simplicity soon gave way to priestly inventions by which the multitude were led into idolatry and polytheism, until at last the people worshipped many gods, and each city or district had its tutelar deity, who in that place was particularly adored, while in the rest of the country he was little regarded. The principal gods were Osiris and Isis, who were worshipped throughout Egypt; Amen, or Ammon, who like Jupiter was held to be the "king of gods," the especial tutelar deity of Thebes; Num or Knuphis, the god of the cataracts and oases, who in later times under the Romans was called also Ammon, and considered the same as Jupiter; Sale, his wife, who corresponded to Juno; Ptah, the Memphian deity, who symbolized the creative power; the goddess Neith, worshipped at Sais, who may be compared to Minerva; Khem, who represented universal nature, and particularly the generative principle, and whose chief temples were at Coptos and at Chemmis; the goddess Pasht, whose worship prevailed at Bubastis, and who corresponded to the Artemis or Diana of Greek and Roman mythology; Maut, the maternal principle; Ra or Phrah, the sun; Seb, the earth, who was called "father of the gods;" Nepte, the sky, wife of Seb, the "mother of the gods;" Mui, the sunlight; Atmu, the darkness; Thoth, the intellect.
Other noted deities were Khons, Anuke, Tafne, Savak, Man-du, Set, Horus, and Athor or Hathor. A great variety of abstract principles and even of animals and vegetables were worshipped by the multitude. To each deity an animal seems to have been held sacred, which was probably regarded as his symbolical representative. Bulls were consecrated to Osiris and cows to Athor; the sacred bull of Memphis, called Apis, being particularly venerated throughout Egypt. A hawk was the symbol of Ra, the ibis of Thoth, the crocodile of Savak, and the cat of Ptah. Of the doctrines of the Egyptian religion little is accurately known. The existence of the spirit after death was believed, and a future state of rewards and punishments inculcated, in which the good dwelt with the gods, while the wicked were consigned to fiery torment amid perpetual darkness. It was believed that after the lapse of ages the spirit would return to the body, which was therefore carefully embalmed and preserved in elaborately constructed tombs. - The government of Egypt was a monarchy, limited by strict laws and by the influence of powerful hereditary privileged classes of priests and soldiers. The priests were the ruling class.
They were restricted to a single wife, and if polygamy was permitted to the rest of the people, it must have been very seldom practised. The marriage of brothers and sisters was permitted. The laws were wise and equitable, and appear to have been rigidly enforced. Murder was punished with death, adultery by bastinadoing the man and by cutting off the nose of the woman, forgery by cutting off the culprit's hands. Imprisonment for debt was not permitted, but a man could pledge to his creditors the mummies of his ancestors, and if he failed in his lifetime to redeem them, he was himself deprived of burial. Women were treated with respect, and the laws and customs seem to have been so favorable to them that their condition in Egypt was much higher than in any other nation of antiquity. The military force of Egypt was a species of hereditary militia, which formed one of the leading classes, and in time of peace cultivated the land, of which it held a large portion. The king's guards, some few thousands in number, were the only standing army. The number of soldiers in the military class is stated by Herodotus at 410,-000, which probably included all the men of that class able to bear arms. Their arms were spears and swords, and they were protected by large shields.
They were distinguished for their skill as archers, and also used the sling. They do not seem to have been well supplied with cavalry, though they made much use of war chariots. - The researches of modern investigators have established the fact that the ancient Egyptians were of the Caucasian type of mankind, and not of the negro. Their language bore unmistakable affinities to the Semitic languages of western Asia, such as the Hebrew and the Arabic. Herodotus, it is true, speaks of them as black and woolly haired, but the mummies, of which immense numbers remain, prove that his words are not to be taken literally. The shape of their skulls is Asiatic, not African; and the paintings on the monuments show that they were neither black like the negro nor copper-colored like some of the Ethiopian tribes. The true negroes are distinctly represented on the monuments, and in a style of caricature which the Egyptians would not have applied to themselves. There is, however, reason to believe that the Egyptians had mixed largely with the negroes, and from the positive statements of Greek and Roman eye-witnesses there can be no doubt that they were of very dark complexion.
We have no certain knowledge of the amount of population under the Pharaohs. By some of the Greek and Roman writers the number of inhabitants at the most flourishing periods is said to have been 7,000,000, a prodigious amount for so small a country, the average number to the square mile, exclusive of the desert, being twice as large as in the most densely peopled lands of modern times. Still, so great was the fertility of the country that the statement is not improbable. ' The cultivable land is somewhat greater in extent now than it was in antiquity, owing to the wider spread of the inundation of the Nile; and it is computed that if properly tilled it would yield more than is requisite for the food of 8,000,000 people, though without allowing any considerable surplus for exportation. Under the Pharaohs little or no corn was exported, and the land seems to have been carefully cultivated. Another statement of the Greeks and Romans, that at the height of her prosperity there were in Egypt 20,000 cities, is altogether preposterous.
The country contained several large and populous cities, the most considerable of which were Thebes, La-topolis, Apollinopolis, and Syene, in Upper Egypt; Memphis, Heracleopolis, and Arsinoe, in Middle Egypt; Heliopolis, Bubastis, Leontopolis, Sais, Busiris, Naucratis, Mendes, Tanis, and Pelusium, in Lower Egypt. - The conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great was much facilitated by the hatred of the natives to their Persian masters. He conciliated the priests by sacrificing to the sacred bull Apis, whom the Persians had treated with indignity; and in order to restore to the people their ancient laws and usages, he established two judgeships, with jurisdiction over the whole country, and appointed two eminent Egyptians to these-offices, directing also all the Greek officers to regard the customs of Egypt in administering the government. But the greatest and most permanent benefit which the Macedonian conqueror bestowed upon Egypt was the foundation of Alexandria, whose capacities to be made a port of the first class and an emporium for the commerce of the eastern Mediterranean he perceived at a glance while passing through the place on his way to visit the oracle of Ammon. The city which he ordered to be built there became in a few years one of the great capitals of the world and the chief centre of Greek civilization.
Alexander effected not merely a political, but a social and intellectual revolution in Egypt, which for a thousand years after the conquest remained essentially a Greek country - the Greeks being the dominant if not the most numerous race. After the death of Alexander, 323 B. C, and the division of his empire among the Macedonian captains, Egypt became subject to Ptolemy, surnamed Soter, an able and enlightened ruler, who after a splendid reign of 38 years abdicated in favor of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus, and died two years afterward. The early part of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus was disturbed by civil war with his rebellious brothers, two of whom he put to death. The domestic state of Egypt was greatly improved under his administration, and Upper Egypt, which had been in a turbulent condition for half a century, was reduced to order and made safe for merchants and other travellers. The port of Berenice on the Red sea was constructed, and other cities were built or enlarged, to facilitate the trade with India, which was at that time extensive and profitable. The museum of Alexandria and its famous library, both founded by Ptolemy Soter, were under him and his son at the height of their prosperity.
Demetrius Phalereus was librarian, Euclid was head of the mathematical school, and the poets Theocritus, Callimachus, and Philaetas were reckoned among the ornaments of the court. The Jews at this time were numerous in Egypt, and with the king's sanction the version of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint was made from the Hebrew into the Greek. The dominions of Ptolemy Philadelphus comprised besides Egypt a considerable part of Ethiopia, together with Palestine, Coele-Syria, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia, Caria, Cyprus, and the Cyclades. His army is said to have numbered 200,000 foot and 20,000 horse, 2,000 chariots, 400 elephants, and a navy of 1,500 ships of war and 1,000 transports. Commerce and the arts, science and literature, directed by Greek genius and Greek energy, were carried to a height of splendor that rivalled the brightest days of the elder Pharaohs. Alexandria, the capital, was a superb city, adorned with magnificent edifices, and preeminent throughout the civilized world as a seat of learning, science, and trade. Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned like his father 38 years (285-247), and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Euergetes, who had a brilliant and prosperous reign of 25 years.
He rebuilt many of the great temples of Egypt and founded others, and his court was thronged by artists and authors. Under his profligate and tyrannical son, Ptolemy Philopator, the kingdom began to decline; and in the reign of the next king, Ptolemy Epiphanes, a minor, the king's guardians were forced to invoke the protection of the Romans against the ambitious designs of the sovereigns of Syria and Macedon, who had formed a combination against Egypt. The result of their interference was that, after a century and a half of turbulence and misrule, under eight sovereigns bearing the name of Ptolemy, the last of whom, Ptolemy XIII., reigned jointly with his sister and wife, the famous Cleopatra, Egypt was reduced to the condition of a Roman province by Augustus Caesar, 30 B. C. It remained subject to the emperors of Rome for more than three centuries, with the short and doubtful exception of a period when it may have been held by Zenobia, queen of Palmyra. It was looked upon as the most valuable of the provinces of the empire, as the granary of Rome, upon whose harvests the idle and turbulent millions of the imperial metropolis depended for their daily bread.
Its history during this long period is a record only of fruitless rebellions and of savage persecutions of the Christians, whose religion had been early introduced and made rapid progress. After the transfer of the seat of the empire to Constantinople, A. D. 330, the Christians of Egypt triumphed over the pagans, and for another period of three centuries its history presents little but theological contests, which not unfrequently broke out into civil strife. The first of these contests was the Arian controversy; Arius, who was pronounced a heretic by the council of Nice (325), being a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, while Athanasius, his orthodox opponent, was archbishop. By the emperor Constantius II. Athanasius was removed from his see and an Arian appointed in his place, while the orthodox Christians were grievously persecuted. When Julian the Apostate became emperor, the pagan mob of Alexandria rose against the Christians and murdered the Arian archbishop, and Athanasius finally regained the archiepiscopate. The emperor Va-lens appointed an Arian to succeed him, and the persecutions of the orthodox were renewed.
Theodosius I. in 379 issued stringent edicts against paganism, which still held its ground, and in Alexandria numbered among its adherents most of the learned and scientific classes and the students in the schools of philosophy. In compliance with the orders of the emperor, the pagan temples were broken into by the Christians and the statues of the deities destroyed or overthrown. The great temple of Serapis,' which had been for ages the most sacred and celebrated of pagan fanes, was plundered and desecrated, and its library of 700,000 volumes despoiled by the mob. The pagans resented these outrages, and took arms in defence of their religion; but after several battles had been fought in the streets, the Christians were victorious, and the pagan leaders were driven from the city. In the reign of Theodosius II.,. Cyril, archbishop of Alexandria, in 414, expelled every Jew from the city. The pagans were next assailed, and one of their most popular teachers of philosophy, Hypatia, daughter of Theon the mathematician, was brutally murdered. At a later period the theological controversies of Egypt culminated in the complete separation of the Coptic or Egyptian church from the orthodox, whose bishops held a council at Chalcedon in 451, and denounced the Egyptian doctrines as heretical.
The animosities generated by these contests alienated the Egyptians from the government at Constantinople, so that they made no opposition when in the reign of Heraclius, in 61G, the country was overrun by the forces of the Persian king Chosroes II., who held it ten years, until the outbreak of Mohammedanism so harassed the Persians that Heraclius was enabled to recover the province, only however to lose it a few years later, in 640, when it was conquered by the Arabs, led by Amru, the general of the caliph Omar. For more than two centuries after the Mohammedan conquest Egypt remained a province of the caliphate. In 868 Ahmed the viceroy threw off his allegiance and established an independent kingdom, which lasted 37 years, when the caliphs again reduced it to subjection. After a long period of anarchy, Moez, the fourth of the Fatimite caliphs, who reigned in northern Africa, and were rivals of the caliphs of Bagdad, conquered Egypt in 970, built the city of Cairo, and made it the seat of his government. The Fatimite dynasty ruled Egypt for two centuries. The most distinguished of them was Hakem (died 1021), the prophet and messiah of the Druses, who still look for his return to earth.
Adhed, the last of the Fatimites, died in 1171, and was succeeded by his vizier or prime minister, Saladin, the chivalrous and successful adversary of the crusaders. He took the title of sultan of Egypt, and at his death in 1193 was sovereign of a vast empire which his sons divided among themselves, Egypt falling to the share of Aziz. Successive invasions by the crusaders harassed Egypt for the following century, but they were all repelled by the descendants of Saladin, with signal loss to the Christians. The last and most disastrous of these attacks was made by Louis IX. of France in 1248, who landed with a large army and the flower of the French chivalry at Damietta, but after some successes was defeated and compelled to capitulate with the loss of 30,000 men. A remarkable revolution next took place in Egypt. Saladin and his successors had organized a numerous body of guards, called Mamelukes, composed exclusively of slaves brought from the countries around the Caspian sea. They gradually acquired such power and influence that at length they deposed their lawful sovereign and made one of their own number sultan. For about 130 years these mercenaries controlled the destinies of Egypt, making and unmaking sultans at their pleasure.
At length, at the close of the 14th century, the Circassians, from whom the ranks of the Mamelukes had long been largely recruited, overthrew the power of the Turkish Mamelukes and took the government into their own hands. Another century of anarchy succeeded, and in 1517 Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman sultan Selim I. and reduced to a Turkish province. Some of the Mameluke sultans were men of talent and energy, and under their rule Egypt was at times the centre of an extensive though fluctuating empire. The arts were cultivated with some success, as is shown by the mosques and tombs of these sultans at Cairo, which justly rank among the most magnificent and elegant specimens of Saracenic architecture. Under their sway Cairo became the chief seat of Mohammedan learning and intellectual cultivation. For two centuries the Turkish pashas ruled Egypt, which decayed like all the lands subjected to them. But in the 18th century the Mamelukes, who still constituted the military force of the province, gradually regained their former power to such an extent that in 1768, under the lead of their ablest and most influential chief, Ali Bey, they threw off the Turkish yoke and declared Egypt independent.
But after four years Ali Bey was betrayed and poisoned, and the authority of the sultan was nominally reestablished. Confusion and civil war between the different factions of the Mamelukes continued to prevail until in 1798 the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte united their chiefs in self-defence. Their famous cavalry was forced to give way before the science and tactics of Europe. In the battle of the Pyramids the Mameluke army was nearly annihilated. The French conquered the whole of Egypt, and held it till 1801, when they were expelled by a British army under Generals Abercromby and Hutchinson. After the departure of the French civil war broke out afresh between the Turks and the surviving Mamelukes, which resulted in 1806 in the elevation to the post of pasha of Mehemet Ali, an Albanian adventurer who had become leader of one of the contending factions. His authority, however, was not firmly established until after a long struggle with the Mamelukes, 500 of whom he perfidiously massacred in 1811. The dispirited survivors fled to Nubia. Mehemet Ali introduced great reforms into Egypt, in the system of administration, and in the organization of the army and navy. With the aid of European adventurers he armed and disciplined a large native force, and created a respectable fleet.
Manufactures of arms, cloths, and other important articles were introduced and sedulously fostered; the commerce of Alexandria, which had dwindled almost to nothing, was revived, and the population of the city was increased tenfold during his reign. Egypt, firmly and moderately governed, enjoyed a state of peace and good order to which it had been a stranger for centuries, and attained a commanding position among the surrounding nations. He carried on a long war with the Wahabees of Arabia, finally conquering them and taking possession of their country in 1818. He next subjected Nubia to his sway. The pasha aimed at complete independence, and so great were his resources that in 1831 - '3 he waged a highly successful war with the Turkish sultan, conquered Syria and a great part of Asia Minor, and would have made himself master of Constantinople had not the European powers interfered to arrest the progress of his army, and avert the overthrow of the Ottoman empire. Another war in 1839--'40, though successfully begun, ended with a considerable loss of power, owing to a new intervention. In 1848 Mehemet Ali, at the age of 80, grew imbecile, and his son Ibrahim was invested with the pashalic.
Ibrahim died at the end of two months, and was succeeded by his nephew Abbas, who as governor of Cairo had been guilty of the greatest atrocities, for which Ibrahim had sent him into exile at Hedjaz as soon as he entered upon his reign. Abbas erected palaces and castles in the deserts, and withdrew to them for months at a time, without paying any attention to the duties of government. One of his first acts was to abolish the educational institutions established by his predecessors, and his next step was to dissolve the army in order to save the expense of it and increase his personal revenues. He hated Europeans, turned them out of office, and tried to drive them out of the country. The only concession he ever made was to permit an English company to build a railway between Alexandria, Cairo, and Suez. In 1852 Abbas received from the Porte an order to introduce the Tanzimat, the fundamental law of Turkey, dating from 1839, which, while granting greater liberties to the people, diminished the autocratic power of the pasha. He refused at first to obey the mandate; but finding that he was involving himself in difficulties which he would not be able to meet, he issued a firman putting the Tanzimat into immediate effect.
The Porte found soon after another opportunity for humiliating the pasha. Abbas treated his relatives with great cruelty and threatened their lives, and they fled to Constantinople and instituted proceedings against him. But a liberal use of money saved him from great molestations, and the ensuing Crimean war made it necessary for the Turkish government to keep on good terms with him. He furnished a contingent of 15,000 men and large sums of money, besides providing for the maintenance of his troops. In July, 1854, Abbas suddenly died, being assassinated, as is believed, by two Mamelukes in the service of a princess of his family whose life he had threatened. The assassination was kept a secret for nearly a week to gain time for the return of El-Hami, his son, in order to secure to him the viceroyalty, which according to the Turkish law of succession fell to Said Pasha, the fourth son of Mehemet Ali. Said Pasha was however informed of the death of Abbas in time to obtain recognition on the part of the foreign consuls and of the Turkish government.
He curtailed the power of the mudirs and sheiks el-beled, instituted a new order of conscription, ordered a more equitable taxation, permitted the sale of produce to other purchasers than the government, and undertook several public works, like the cleansing of the Mah-moudieh canal and the continuation of the railway between Alexandria and Cairo to Suez. But the $5,000,000 which he spent on the last enterprise were thrown away, as this portion of the railway failed to pay the expense of running, and was abandoned for the road subsequently built from Benha to Suez. The construction of the Suez canal is also due to him. His foreign policy was peaceful. After the close of the Crimean war the only use he was called upon to make of his large army was to check the inroads of the Bedouins, and to advance into the Nubian territories not before annexed, which he put under his protectorate. His reforms failed to bear good fruit during his lifetime, because his extravagance heaped upon the country enormous debts.
He died Jan. 18, 1863, and was succeeded by his nephew Ismail Pasha. The dearth of cotton caused by the American civil war induced him to cultivate that plant upon his domains, inviting his people to follow up his experiments; the result is that Egypt has become a very important cotton market. The difficulties that beset the continuance of the excavation of the Suez canal he managed with considerable tact, and he was equally successful, by the aid of an enormous sum of money, in obtaining at Constantinople an avoidance of the Mohammedan law of succession as applied to the viceroyalty of Egypt, and the substitution of succession from father to son. In 1866 he put at the service of the Porte an army of 30,000 men to suppress the rebellion in Candia, and soon after increased voluntarily the amount of his tribute. Toward the end of the year he established a kind of parliament, consisting of 75 members, chosen without regard to religion, for the discussion of measures that he might wish to submit for approval; but he remained as absolutely the ruler of the country as before.
In the following year he obtained from the Porte several concessions on the hatti-sherif of 1841, which bound Egypt to an observance of the general laws of the Turkish empire, and of the treaties which it made with foreign powers. The sultan gave Ismail power to issue laws relating to the interior administration, tolls, and taxes, and to conclude treaties with other powers in regard to general transit and postal affairs. Ismail thereupon asked for the appellation of aziz ul-Misr, sovereign of the land of Egypt, but the sultan granted him instead the title of khedive, substitute or viceroy. His subsequent demands for an entirely independent legislation, and diplomatic representation at foreign courts, revealed that his aim was gradually to render himself independent of the Turkish empire. He attempted to force the Porte into granting his request by threatening to withdraw his troops from Candia, and by demanding that his tribute should be reduced to the former amount, and that it should be remitted for the next five years; he even hinted that he might take possession of Candia if his demands were not complied with. It was through the interference of the foreign powers to check his ambitious projects that a war between the sultan and his vassal was prevented.
Ismail advanced in 1868 into the countries of the Upper Nile, over which he extended his sway. In the autumn of 1869 he sent out an expedition under Sir Samuel Baker to establish his rule in the lands bordering on the White Nile. In the same year he attempted to negotiate a neutralization of the Suez canal, as well as a loan, while inviting the different sovereigns to be present at the opening festivities. He received soon after an order to reduce his army to 30,000 men; to countermand the ironclads and breech-loaders which he had ordered in France, or, if that was impossible, to transfer them to the Turkish government on payment of their cost; to abstain in future from all diplomatic transactions and from making foreign loans; and to submit for inspection the annual budget of the income and expenditures of Egypt. The khedive's reply was unsatisfactory; he made no concessions, and declared that he would make loans whenever and wherever he wished. The sultan was about to send a messenger to Cairo with the ultimatum to the khe-dive of obedience or deposition. England and France tried to bring about a more peaceful course, but the sultan declined all interference; he was, however, induced to defer action until after the visit of the European princes at the opening of the canal.
At this festivity 10,000 persons of all countries were entertained at the expense of the khedive. The empress of France, the emperor of Austria, and the crown prince of Prussia were present. Before the last guests had left Egypt a note arrived from the sultan presenting the alternative of submission or war. Ismail had seen that he could not expect armed assistance from the European powers; he therefore issued (Dec. 9) a firman declaring his submission to the will of the sultan. But in the following year he threw another loan on the European market, saying that he offered no other guarantee than his private treasury. The sultan thereupon cut off his credit by a public announcement to the effect that the loan proposed by the khedive had not the support of the laws of the country. This and the subsequent Franco-German war obliged the khedive to abandon for a while his attempt to establish a recognized independence. He has since been busy in carrying out his other plan of getting under his control the whole country extending to Gondo-koro and the coast of the Albert Nyanza, about lat. 2° S., in which he has been served by Sir Samuel Baker. The constant wars between the several rulers of Abyssinia since the Eng-lish expedition afforded the khedive an opportunity to push into that country, and establish over portions of it a sort of military rule, on the pretext of protecting Egyptian trade.
Through the other native territories he has drawn a military cordon, and opened roads for traffic. His intention is to transform those regions into an agricultural district; he supplies the chiefs with seed, and holds them under obligation to furnish certain quantities of produce. Thus he has made their stores of ivory, gums, hides, wax, gold, etc, more accessible; and the railways and telegraphs which he is now rapidly building through Nubia, as well as his control over the Red sea and the Suez canal, enable him to secure the wealth of these districts for the benefit of the lower provinces. These efforts of the khedive to secure the prosperity of Egypt restored to him the confidence of the sultan, and on June 8, 1873, a firman was granted which not only confirms the privileges enjoyed by his predecessors, but changes the position of Egypt from a province into an almost sovereign kingdom. The firman authorizes the khedive to make laws and internal regulations; to organize every means of defence, and without restriction to augment or diminish the number of his troops; to contract with foreign powers commercial treaties, and others regulating the position of foreigners and their intercourse with the government and the population; and to contract loans abroad in the name of the Egyptian government, with complete and entire control of the financial affairs of the country.
The khedive is forbidden to make treaties bearing on political matters; he can have no agents accredited at foreign courts; the money coined in Egypt must be coined in the name of the sultan; the colors of the Egyptian army and navy must be in no way different from those of the Turkish forces; ironclad vessels must not be built without the permission of the sultan. The khedive retains the privilege of conferring military promotions up to the rank of colonel, and civil grades to that of rutbeh-i-sanieh only. Finally, he is bound to remit every year, in full and without delay, to the Turkish treasury 150,000 purses of tribute. - The following is a list of some of the most important works on ancient and modern Egypt: Denon, Voyage dans la basse et la haute Egypte (Paris, 1802); Champollion (the younger), L Egypte sous les Pharaons (Paris, 1814), and Monuments de l'Egypte et de la Nubie (1843); Description de l'Egypte (26 vols. 8vo, and 12 vols. fol. of plates, new ed., 1820-30); Lane, "Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians " (2 vols., London, 1836); Russegger, Reisen (7 vols., Stuttgart, 1841-50); Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgeschichte (5 vols. 8vo, Hamburg and Gotha, 1845-57), and more especially the second edition of the English translation, with additions by Samuel Birch (5 vols., London, 1867); Samuel Sharpe, "History of Egypt from the earliest Times to the Conquest of the Arabs" (London, 1846; new ed., 1870); Wilkinson, " Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians" (3d ed., 5 vols., London, 1847), "Handbook for Travellers in Egypt" (1847), " A popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians " (2 vols., 1854), and notes and appendices to Rawlinson's "Herodotus" (1858-'9); Lepsius, Denkmaler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (Leip-sic, 1849 et seq.), Chronologie der Aegypter (Berlin, 1849), and Briefe aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (Berlin, 1852; English translation, London, 1855); Kenrick, "Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs " (2 vols., London, 1850); Brugsch, Reiseberichte aus Aegypten (Leipsic, 1855), His-toire d'Egypte des premiers temps jusqu a nos jours (3 vols., 1859 et seq.; abridged by Mariette for the use of the colleges of Egypt as Aper-gu de l'histoire d'Egypte, Alexandria, 1864), and Geographische Inschriften Altagyptischer Denkmaler (Leipsic, 1857-60); Uhlemann, Handbuch der gesammten Aegyptischen Alter-thumskunde (4 vols., Leipsic, 1857-'8); Alfred von Kremer, Aegypten, Forschungen uber Land und Volk (2 vols., Leipsic, 1863); Chabas, Voyage d'un Egyptien en Syrie, Phenicie et Palestine (Chalons, 1866); Dumichen, Histo-rische Inschriften (Leipsic, 1867-'9); Ebers, Aegypten und die Bucher Mose's (2 vols., Leipsic, 1871-'4); and Stephan, Das heutige Aegypten (Leipsic, 1872). See also the travels of Savary, Sonnini, Belzoni, St. John, Harriet Martineau, J. L. Stephens, Dr. Robinson, Bayard Taylor, G. W. Curtis, W. C. Prime, etc.