Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Aug. 15, 1769, two months after the conquest of the island by the French, died at St. Helena, May 5, 1821. It is related that, his mother being taken in labor suddenly as she was returning from mass, he was born on a piece of old tapestry, on which were figured the events of the Iliad. As a boy he manifested a violent and passionate temper, and in the little disputes with his elder brother Joseph he always came off master. The traditions report also that he delighted in running after the soldiers, who taught him military manoeuvres; that his favorite plaything was a small brass cannon; and that he regularly drilled the children of Ajaccio in battles with stones and wooden sabres. His first teacher was his mother, who exerted a powerful influence upon his mind. He was next admitted to the royal college of Ajaccio, and spent a short time with his father on the continent, and with his brother Joseph at the college of Autun. In his 10th year, April 23, 1779, ho was sent to the military school at Brienne, where Pichegru was one of his instructors.
His companions there regarded him as taciturn and morose; but as he was a Corsican, speaking very little French, and poor as well as proud, like those islanders generally, his conduct is doubtless to be ascribed as much to his circumstances as to his temperament. Toward those who showed him sympathy, like Bourri-enne, he was susceptible of strong attachments. The annual report of the school for 1784 says of him: "Distinguished in mathematical studies, tolerably versed in history and geography, much behind in Latin and belles-lettres, and other accomplishments; of regular habits, studious, and well behaved, and enjoying excellent health." His favorite author was Plutarch. The stories of his assuming undue authority over his fellows are contradicted by Bourrienne in his Memoires. In 1784 Napoleon repaired to the military school at Paris to complete his studies. He was shocked at the expensive style of living there, and wrote a letter against it to his late superior at Brienne, Pere Berton. In September, 1785, he was commissioned a sub-lieutenant of artillery, and soon afterward was promoted to be first lieutenant of artillery in the regiment of Grenoble, stationed at Valence. There he wrote an essay for the prize offered by the Lyons academy, on the question, "What are the principles and the institutions necessary to make man happy? " and was successful.
Talleyrand, having procured this essay, showed it to Napoleon when he was at the height of his power, and he cast it into the fire. With his friend De Manis he also made an excursion during that time to Mont Cenis, which he purposed to describe in the style of Sterne's "Sentimental Journey," then much in vogue; but he did not complete what he had designed. A pretty Mile. Oalom-bier of Valence, with whom he had stolen interviews and " ate innocent cherries," was supposed to have inspired the sentimental part of this literary plan. A more suitable undertaking was the project of a history of Corsica, which he began, and communicated to Paoli, then living in exile in London. The parts of it still preserved are full of warm patriotic expressions and vehement democratic thoughts. They were not phrases borrowed from the classic authors, but the spontaneous outbursts of a fresh young mind, stimulated by the spirit of his age, and not yet contaminated by the experiences of life, or fettered by its own schemes of aggrandizement. Napoleon visited Ajaccio every year, and interested himself in furthering the education as well as the fortunes of his brothers and sisters.
Though not the oldest son, he was instinctively recognized as the true head of the family, his father having died in 1785. His allowance in those days, probably furnished by his uncle, was 1,200 francs. Nothing could have been more decided than his democratic tendencies at this period. The great revolution of France was already moving powerfully onward, and he, in common with the other officers of the regiment at Valence, watched its complicated movements with deepening anxiety. Many of those officers openly took part with the royalists, while others, and among them Napoleon, inclined as strongly to the revolutionary side. On Feb. 6, 1792, he became a captain of artillery by seniority, and in the same year, being at Paris, he witnessed the insurrections of June 20 and of Aug. 10. Bour-rienne relates that on the former of these occasions, when he saw the mob break into the palace, and force the king to appear at the window, with the lonnet rouge on his head, Bonaparte exclaimed: " It is all over with that poor man! A few discharges of grape would have sent those despicable wretches flying." Paoli, having emerged from his retirement, had been enthusiastically received at Paris, and invested with the presidency and military command of his native island, where the ferment of revolution was also at its height.
Ajaccio appears to have been for a while the headquarters of the patriots, the Bonaparte house their place of meeting, and Joseph and Napoleon (who had returned hither) the acknowledged leaders. But Paoli's views of liberty were far more moderate than those of the national legislature, and in a little while he found himself in direct opposition to the government. The Bo-napartes, strongly attached to him personally, did not follow him in this movement, as the inhabitants of Ajaccio did generally, but adhered to the cause of the convention. A civil war was the consequence of Paoli's defection; and in the course of it Napoleon, who acted provisionally as the commander of a battalion of the national guard, had the unpleasant duty laid upon him of assaulting his native place.
He succeeded against it at the outset; but the besieged party rallying, and his communication with the frigate which had set him ashore having been cut off, he was deprived of his temporary success, and in turn besieged in the tower of Capitello. During this time he and his 50 men were reduced to the extremity of living for three days upon horse flesh, when some shepherds from the mountains released them from their situation. The exasperation of the adverse faction now drove the Bona-partes out of Ajaccio. Madame Lsetitia, frightened by the signs of imminent danger, fled with her children to Milelli, and thence across the rugged mountain roads to the seashore, where they concealed themselves in the thickets until Napoleon succeeded in conveying them to Nice, whence they removed to Marseilles (1793). During their residence at Marseilles Napoleon was employed by the general commanding the artillery of " the army of Italy" to negotiate with the insurgents of Marseilles and Avignon. In the latter place he published in the same year a little pamphlet called Le souper de Beaucaire, in which he endeavored to persuade the excited people of those parts not to provoke the vengeance of the revolutionists, who were then the ruling power, and who were dealing a fearful retribution upon all whom they suspected to be the enemies of the country.
Its sentiments were generally republican, and in favor of the Montagne, as against the Girondists, but not at all Jacobinical, as has been alleged. The pamphlet is given in Bourrienne, and translated in the appendix to Sir Walter Scott's " Bonaparte." But the provinces were not the sphere for Napoleon, and he repaired to Paris, where he spent a part of the summer of 1793. In September he was ordered on service at the siege of Toulon, then possessed by the Spanish and English, where he displayed such extraordinary military intelligence and activity as to lay the foundation of his whole subsequent military career. After reconnoitring Toulon for a month, he communicated to the council of war a plan of attack, which was adopted, and which he himself executed with brilliant success. The place was so important that the capture of it diffused a general joy over France, and gave to the young colonel of artillery, by whom the reduction had been chiefly accomplished, a distinguished name. In consequence of his services, he was recommended by Gen. Dugommier for promotion, and on Feb. 6,1794, was made a brigadier general of artillery. He was then in his 25th year.
Dugommier's letter to the committee of public safety in regard to him said sagaciously enough: " Reward this young man and promote him; for, should he be ungratefully treated, he will promote himself." Joining the army under Gen. Dumer-bion, stationed at the foot of the Maritime Alps, he made the campaign of 1794 against the Pied-montese troops. On the downfall of Robespierre, on the 9th Thermidor, 1794, he was suspected by the moderate party of too strong a sympathy with that leader, and, in spite of his disclaimers, was temporarily put under arrest. He wrote a sharp remonstrance against this proceeding, and was released by the committee of public safety, after a detention of about a fortnight. At the close of the campaign of that year he went to Paris again to solicit some new employment, but, in spite of his abilities, he did not procure it instantly. His letters to his brother Joseph, written during this time, have the tone and manner of those of a mere adventurer, somewhat depressed by ennui, and waiting impatiently upon fortune, though ready for any good luck that may turn up. " Life," he remarks, "is a flimsy dream, soon to be over," as if he was yet unsuspicious of what a disturbed and restless dream his was destined to be.
He lodged in the rue du Mail, near the place de la Victoire, often complained of his poverty and suggested schemes for raising money, and at one time thought of offering his services to the sultan of Turkey. But the constitution of the year III. organizing the directorial government having in the mean time been adopted (1795), and the Thermidoreans of the convention which adopted it having passed two decrees declaring that the two new councils created by the constitution should in the first instance be constituted of two thirds of the present and one third of new members, and ordering the electoral bodies to nominate the third that were to be returned, a new germ of civil war was planted. The sections or primary assemblies of Paris resisted this dictatorial attempt of the convention to perpetuate its own power, and the convention prepared to put down the sections. The convention held at its disposal some 5,000 regular troops, besides a large number of cannon, under the general control of Barras, one of its members. Menou was at first chosen to lead these troops against the people, but, through indecision or want of energy, failed in his movements.
Barras, who had known Napoleon at Toulon, then said- to the committee of the convention that the young Corsican, who was already employed by them in some slight military occupation, was the very person to take command. They accordingly gave it to him, and he, willing to fight for the people or against them, as best served his own designs or necessities, made his arrangements for the dispersion of the populace. On the morning of the 13th Vendemiaire (Oct. 5, 1795), the national guards, as the defenders of the sections were called, advanced, to the number of 30,-000 men, along the quays of the Seine, the rue St. Honore, and other approaches to the Tuile-ries. Everywhere as they advanced, however, they encountered a most formidable resistance. Napoleon, though he had but one night to make his arrangements, left no point undefended, while he established bodies of troops in the best positions, arid to a fire of musketry returned a murderous discharge of cannon.
In less than an hour of actual fighting he secured the victory to the convention, and, Barras resigning, he became the commander-in-chief of the army of the interior. One of the letters addressed to Joseph by Napoleon during intervals of his idleness said, jokingly, "If I stay here it is possible I may be fool enough to marry," and fortune had already prepared his bride for him. Moving in the society of Barras, Tallien, Carnot, and their families, was a young widow named Josephine Beauhar-nais, a native of Martinique, and possessed of rare beauty and accomplishments. Bonaparte paid his addresses to her, and was soon an accepted lover. On Feb. 23, 1796, he was appointed, at the instance of Carnot, to the command of the army of Italy, which for three or four years had been carrying on an indecisive war against the Sardinians and Austrians, amid the defiles of the Alps and the Ligurian Apennines. His marriage took place the next month, March 9, and in less than a week afterward lie departed to assume command. His army consisted of about 35,000 men, and was in a miserable state of destitution as to clothing and provisions, and considerably relaxed in discipline.
The allied army opposed to him contained some 60,000 men, conducted by Beau-lieu, an experienced and courageous general, and manoeuvred according to the most skilful strategies of the time. But, in spite of the superiority of numbers and experience, Napoleon brought to the campaign several incontestable advantages: 1, the enthusiasm and alacrity of a young mind given for the first time a separate and independent field of glory, and determined on conquest or ruin; 2, an unrivalled power of combination, joined to a celerity of movement that seemed almost miraculous; and lastly, the free use of such a stimulant to the hopes of impatient and desperate troops, half famished amid the barren Alpine rocks, as the promise of an unrestrained enjoyment of " the rich provinces and opulent towns " of Italy. Against France, at that time, a formidable coalition, consisting of England, Austria, Bavaria, Piedmont, Naples, and several minor states both of Germany and Italy, was arrayed; but Austria was the principal of the league, and the possession of Italy the key to the situation.
Napoleon perceived this, and at once proceeded to make himself master of Italy. On April 12 he gained a victory at Monte Notte; on the 14th, that of Millesimo; on the 15th, that of Dego; on the 21st, that of Mondovi; by which series of successes the king of Sardinia was compelled to sue for peace. Turning his attention next to upper Italy, he advanced upon Lodi, where he forced the passage of the Adda, May 10, in a brilliant battle which put Lombardy in his power. On May 15 he entered Milan, where heavy contributions were levied upon the state, and the principal works of art seized and sent to Paris. Naples, Modena, and Parma hastened to conclude a peace, and the pope was forced to sign an armistice. Mantua was the next object of attack. Wurmser, at the head of large Austrian reinforcements, came through Tyrol to the defence; the two main divisions of his army were defeated at Lonato, Aug. 3, and at Cas-tiglione delle Stiviere, Aug. 5, and driven back. On Sept. 4 another division of the Austrians was repulsed at Roveredo. Wurmser, having rallied his scattered troops in the mean time, was again attacked and routed at Bassano, Sept. 8. A third Austrian army, under Marshal Al-vinczy, now entered Italy, and for a part of the autumn held the French in check; but on Nov. 15 a battle was joined at Arcole, which, after three days (15th-17th) of the hardest fighting that had yet occurred in the Italian campaign, gave the victory again to the French. Bonaparte then turned his attention to the settlement of the internal affairs of Italy, which was everywhere disturbed, and in many places in insurrection.
A letter written to the directory, Dec. 28, 1796, reveals the principles upon which he acted in his various arrangements: " There are in Lombardy three parties: 1, that which is subservient to France and follows our directions; 2, that which aims at liberty and national government, and with some degree of impatience; and 3, that which is friendly to Austria and hostile to us. I support the first, restrain the second, and put down the third. As for the states south of the Po, there are also three parties: 1, the friends of the old government; 2, the partisans of a free aristocratical constitution; and 3, the partisans of pure democracy. I put down the first; I support the second, because it is the party of the great proprietors, and of the clergy, who exercise the greatest influence over the masses of the people, whom it is our interest to win over to us; and I restrain the third, which is composed chiefly of young men, of writers, and of people who, as in France and everywhere else, love liberty merely for the sake of revolution." In the beginning of the year 1797 Austria again took the field with a formidable army, which Napoleon encountered, Jan. 14, at Rivoli, and defeated. Immediately afterward Wurmser, who had stood an obstinate siege in Mantua, was compelled to surrender.
On the same day, proclaiming that the truce with the pope was at an end, Napoleon entered the papal territories, and repulsed the papal troops on the Senio; took Faenza, and in quick succession Ancona, Loreto, and Tolentino; and on Feb. 19 forced the pope to conclude a peace. By this he was enabled to wage war upon Austria on her own soil. He crossed the Piave, and on March 16 forced the passage of the Tagliamento and the Isonzo; on the 19th he seized Gradisca, on the 20th Gorz, and on the 23d Trieste. Before April 1 the greater part of Carinthia, Carniola, and Tyrol was reduced to subjection. On April 7 he granted the deputies of the archduke Charles an armistice of five days, and on the 18th of the same month concluded preliminaries of peace at Leoben, which laid the Austrians under pretty severe conditions, and assured the French possession of Trieste, whence they proceeded to assail Venice. On May 3 a declaration of war against that republic was published, on the pretended ground of its having violated neutrality; and on May 12 the city was occupied, and a new constitution, somewhat less aristocratic than the old, was improvised.
During the same month Genoa was revolutionized, and early in June received a new French constitution as the "Ligurian republic." On June 29, at Milan, the new Cisalpine republic was proclaimed, and speedily organized; and on July 14 the French army, retiring from the territories of the new republic, took up cantonments in the Venetian states. During the remainder of the summer and the autumn Napoleon was engaged in conferences and negotiations for a definitive treaty of peace with Austria, which was signed at Campo Formio, Oct. 17. By that celebrated arrangement Austria ceded her Lombard territories to the Cisalpine republic, and her former possessions in the Low Countries to France, guaranteeing the extension of its boundary to the left bank of the Rhine, while she received the Venetian provinces of Istria and Dalmatia, and the mainland of the republic as far as the Adige. Of the violence, the pillage, and the despotism which marked these Italian campaigns, it is for history to speak; but they did not prevent the popular French sentiment of the time from hailing Napoleon when he returned to Paris, Dec. 5, 1797, not merely as the conqueror, but as the liberator of Italy. In the short space of two years he had won a series of the most splendid victories on record, dictated forms of government to nearly the whole of Italy, humbled Austria, acquired large accessions of wealth and territory for France, and rendered the French arms formidable to the world.
Under these circumstances, his journey from Italy to Paris was, of course, a triumphal procession; the enthusiasm of the Parisians was immense, and the festivals in his honor were endless; but Napoleon received his honors with becoming moderation, and was in fact sombre and thoughtful. Being a member of the institute, he assumed its dress, associated principally with men of science, and in all the congratulatory addresses of the period was extolled for his simplicity, his modesty, and his complete want of ambition. - The directory, then in power, had created an " army of England," with a view to hostilities against that country, and conferred the command of it on Bonaparte. He appeared to favor the movement, but at heart he disliked it, knowing how impracticable an attempt to conquer the island would prove; and he sought to substitute for it a magnificent dream of his own, the conquest of Egypt and the East. At last the directory consented to this, and Napoleon made his preparations to embark at Toulon. By May 9, 1798, a great army had been collected, and the expedition set sail on the 19th. On June 10 it landed at Malta, and on the 12th took possession of the island, which was garrisoned by the French. A week later the fleet renewed its course, reaching Alexandria July 1. On the following day the French took the city, and having secured it advanced toward the Nile. They crossed the desert, and reached the river July 10. A flotilla ascended the stream, while the army marched along the shore.
Arriving before Cairo July 21, they encountered a large body of Mamelukes under Murad Bey, which, after a most determined struggle, was repulsed. The battle was called the battle of the Pyramids, and the success of the French struck terror far into Africa and Asia. Many of the surrounding tribes submitted to the conqueror. But fortune was preparing for him a terrible reverse. His fleet, consisting of 13 ships of the line, besides frigates, was found in Aboukir bay by Nelson, the English admiral, who had long been in pursuit of it, and was attacked on the evening of Aug. 1, with a degree of vigor and activity which was never surpassed in naval warfare. The whole squadron, with the exception of two ships of the line and two frigates, was destroyed or captured. Bonaparte being cut off from the means of return, the sultan issued a declaration of war against him, Sept. 10, for invading one of his provinces, incited an insurrection in Cairo, and prepared to send an army into Egypt. In February, 1799, Bonaparte crossed the desert with about 13,000 men, took El-Arish and Gaza, stormed Jaffa, where 2,500 Turkish prisoners were deliberately massacred, and advanced into Syria. On March 17 the French army reached Acre, defended by a strong force of English, under Sir Sidney Smith, and two ships of the line.
Repeated but ineffectual attempts to storm the place were made up to May 20, when Napoleon saw himself compelled to abandon the siege. The French army retreated to Cairo, which place they entered June 14. The Syrian campaign, which had lasted three months, cost the French 4,000 men, who were either killed or died of the plague. On July 25 they recovered the possession of Aboukir from the Turks, after which Napoleon, whom his brother Joseph had succeeded in informing of the distracted condition of France and the growing unpopularity of the directory, returned home privately with a few personal adherents. He endeavored to conceal the failure of his expedition under the glory of its immense scientific results, but he could not disguise from himself that his plan to molest the English supremacy in India, to colonize Egypt, to give France the command of the Mediterranean, and to build up for himself, perhaps, a vast oriental empire, had miscarried. He returned in time to take advantage of the political intrigues then rife, and, by the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire (see Brumaike), to attain supreme power as first consul of the republic (December, 1799). From this time his line of policy unfolded itself more distinctly; to establish order at home, and to humiliate the enemies of the nation, were the honorable objects of it; but the extension of his own power was unfortunately an end scarcely less conspicuous.
Nothing could have been more needed than a reformation of the administrative departments; the finances were deranged, the treasury empty, the taxes increasing, and trade at a standstill. In the same summary manner in which he ordered his troops, but with remarkable sagacity, and still more remarkable courage and activity, Bonaparte undertook to reform civil affairs. At the same time, Austria, England, and the Porte, if not carrying on active hostilities against France, refused all terms of peace, and a civil war was raging in La Vendee. Suppressing the latter by a series of decided but conciliatory measures, he turned his whole attention to the continental war. An army was secretly concentrated near the lake of Geneva, with which he passed the Great St. Bernard May 14-20,1800, and entered Milan June 2. On the 14th of the same month, after several unimportant skirmishes, he met the Austrians under Gen. Melas at the village of Marengo, where he achieved another brilliant victory, and by this unexpected blow at once recovered the supremacy of France in Italy, which had been lost in his absence.
Having established provisional governments at Milan, Turin, and Genoa, he returned to Paris, where he was received, July 3, with immense enthusiasm, but in December barely escaped assassination by an infernal machine. As his general, Moreau, had also defeated the archduke John in the great battle of Hohenlinden, Dec. 3, 1800, Austria was obliged to make a separate peace. The preliminary treaty of Luneville, dated Feb. 9, 1801, made a new arrangement of the states of the continent; and although it was essentially the same as that of the treaty of Campo Formio, it contained provisions which laid the foundation of much subsequent trouble. Pursuant to the same objects, treaties were concluded with Spain, March 21, 1801; with Naples, March 18; with the pope, July 15; with Bavaria, Aug. 24; with Portugal, Sept. 29; with Russia, Oct. 8; with Turkey, the 9th; with Algiers, Dec. 27; and the treaty of Amiens with England, March 27, 1802. Thus it seemed as if a universal cessation of hostilities was about to mark the history of Europe. To the title of conqueror the first consul now added that of pacificator.
But his attempt to crush an insurrection of the blacks in Santo Domingo, for which an expedition had been sent out toward the close of 1801, under his brother-in-law Gen. Leclerc, is not to be regarded as one of the grounds of this latter title. The greater part of the army, some 20,000 in number, was swept away by fever and the sword; the blacks were instigated by brutal cruelties to still more brutal massacres; and the island was desolated by the fiercest exhibitions of alternate terror and revenge. It was by the direct act of Napoleon that slavery was reestablished in Guadeloupe, and the slave trade reopened. Toussaint Lou-verture, an able and courageous Haytian negro, who had made himself the leader of his struggling countrymen, was seized during a truce, and carried to France, where he died in prison. Napoleon availed himself of this interval to perfect the administration of the interior affairs of his country. A general amnesty allowed all the French emigrants to return home; a new order of knighthood known as the legion of honor was established, and the constitution of the Cisalpine republic was perfected. On Aug. 2, 1802, Bonaparte was proclaimed consul for life by a decree of the senate, which was confirmed by a popular sanction of some 3,000,000 votes.
A senatus consultum, issued a few days after, reconstructing the electoral bodies and reducing the tribunate to 50 mem-' bers, indicated, however, that he was not yeti satisfied with the dignity to which he had been raised. Many persons saw in the movement a cautious step toward a still more absolute power. - It is to this period that the greatest of Napoleon's services to France belongs. The civil code, which has ever since been the law of the nation, was then digested and arranged by a commission of eminent lawyers and civilians, under the presidency of Cambaceres. The various branches of public instruction also attracted his attention; and the lyceum, the college of France, the polytechnic and other military schools, were organized on the most liberal scale. But the perfection of the centralization begun by the revolutionary assemblies, which reduced the provincial administration of France to one uniform plan, having its head at Paris, and completely abrogating the old communal liberty and independence, was a more questionable reform. Nor were his efforts to restore the religious harmony of France, by renewing the ancient privileges of the Catholic priests, as happily conceived as many of his political improvements.
In fact, like nearly all organizers and reformers, Napoleon undertook too much, and in the exaggeration of his own powers fell into many mistakes. Yet, in considering the epoch of the consulate, it is impossible not to derive from it a high admiration of the scope and versatility of Napoleon's genius, and a general sympathy with his public aims. But already his head was giddy with success, and in the midst of the great labors of 1802 he coveted the imperial diadem. Disturbances in Switzerland in the beginning of 1802 caused Napoleon to resort to an armed mediation in its affairs; in August of the same year the island of Elba was united to France; on Sept. 11 the incorporation of Piedmont took place, and in October that of the duchy of Parma. England professed to see in these events an infringement of the treaty of Amiens, and in a short time there was an open resumption of hostilities. On March 21, 1803, a senatus consultum placed 120,000 conscripts at Napoleon's command, while England made no less active preparations. On May 18 England declared war against France, and laid an embargo upon all French vessels in her ports.
France retaliated by a decree that all Englishmen, of whatever condition, found on her territory, should be detained as prisoners of war; and Gen. Mor-tier was sent to occupy the electorate of Hanover, as belonging to Great Britain. In the mean time, the police of Paris professed to have discovered a conspiracy against the life of the first consul, in which Pichegru, returned from exile in Guiana, Georges Cadoudal, a Chouan chief, and Gen. Moreau were said to be concerned. These were arrested, and suspicions of complicity attaching to the duke d'Enghien, son of the duke de Bourbon and grandson of the prince de Conde, the neutral territory of the grand duchy of Baden was invaded in order to effect his seizure. He was taken during the night of March 15,1804, conveyed to the citadel of Strasburg, and thence, under escort, to the castle of Vincennes. A military court, consisting of seven, was hastily summoned there by the first consul, by which the duke was tried and found guilty of the charges of bearing arms against France, of offering his services to England, of conspiring with emigrants on the frontiers, and being an accomplice of the Paris conspirators.
He was sentenced to death, and executed the next morning, March 21, between 4 and 5 o'clock. On April 6 Pichegru was found dead in his prison. At a later period Georges Cadoudal and others were executed, while some of their confederates were reprieved, and Moreau was banished. - It was in the midst of these sinister events that a motion was made in the tribunate by one Curee that Napoleon be made emperor of the French, with the right of succession to his family. Carnot spoke against the motion with much patriotic fervor, but it was oarried by a large majority. On submission of the question to the votes of the people, an apparent popular sanction was given to the deed, and on May 18 Napoleon assumed the imperial title. He requested the pope to perform the ceremony of his coronation. Pius VII., after consulting with his cardinals, came to Paris for that purpose in November. On Dec. 2 the " soldier of fortune," as he had been sometimes called, was consecrated at the altar of Notre Dame, " the high and mighty Napoleon I., emperor of the French." Being emperor, he proceeded to surround himself with all the splendors and gauds supposed to be essential to the dignity.
He created a new nobility with sounding titles; he opened a brilliant court; he restored the etiquette of royalty, and in a thousand other ways sought to dazzle weak minds by ostentation and parade. The changes which had taken place in France rendered changes in the Italian governments necessary, and from republics they were transformed into a kingdom. Napoleon went to Milan, where on May 26, 1805, he was anointed 4ft king of Italy, in the midst of imposing ceremonies and theatrical pomp. The same summer the northern powers listened to the solicitations of England, and united in a coalition against the new emperor. Russia, Austria, and Sweden joined in the charges of territorial usurpation which were levelled at Napoleon; but Prussia, already bribed by him with the promise of Hanover, could not be seduced into becoming a party. By September the French forces in eight divisions, and numbering 180,000 men, were upon the Rhine, ready to act against Austria. That country, governed by decrepit bureaucrats, sent forward its troops under an incompetent general, Mack, without waiting for the Russian allies. On Oct. 17, being completely surrounded by Napoleon at Ulm, he conditionally capitulated, and on the 20th he surrendered his whole army of 23,000 men.
The next day, however, the great victory of Nelson at Trafalgar, over the combined fleets of France and Spain, compensated the allies for this reverse. Nothing daunted by the naval disaster, Napoleon advanced to Vienna, which city he entered Nov. 13, where he made his preparations to meet the combined armies of Russia and Austria, then concentrating on the plains of Olmutz. On Dec. 2,1805, the grand encounter came on at Austerlitz, and after a struggle of unexampled energy - in which three of the greatest armies of Europe, each commanded by an emperor, with the mastery of the continent for the prize, met in desperate strife - Napoleon won the victory, the most glorious perhaps of his career. The allies were thoroughly routed; the emperor of Austria made instant peace, while the emperor of Russia withdrew into his own territories. The king of Prussia was rewarded for his neutrality by the possession of Hanover, and England alone remained to stem the tide of success which was bearing forward the victorious Cor-sican. As the king of Naples, instigated by his wife, an Austrian princess, had received the troops of Russia and England into his dominions during the recent war, Napoleon construed the act into one of predetermined hostility, and in February, 1806, sent an army under his brother Joseph to occupy the country.
The king fled to Sicily, when Napoleon declared the crown vacant, and conferred the title of king of Naples and Sicily upon Joseph, March 30. Following this by another decree, he transformed the Batavian republic into a kingdom, dependent upon France, and gave the crown to his brother Louis, June 5. About the same time he erected various districts in Germany and Italy into dukedoms, which he bestowed upon his principal marshals. But a more important act was that of July 12, which created the confederation of the Rhine, and which some 14 princes of Germany were induced to join, thereby placing themselves under the supremacy of France, and detaching some 16,000,000 people from the tottering German empire. The policy which Napoleon had pursued in making two of his brothers kings, he now extended to his sisters and brothers-in-law, who were distributed as rulers over various countries of the continent. William Pitt, the minister of Great Britain, having died Jan. 23, 1806, and Charles Fox succeeding to his place, negotiations were opened between France and England in regard to the termination of hostilities.
In the course of these, propositions were entertained looking toward a restoration of Hanover to the latter power, which at once opened the eyes and aroused the jealousies of Prussia. It was not long before the Prussian monarch acceded to the coalition against Napoleon, and entered into active preparations for war. The emperor, whose celerity of action was prodigious, instantaneously moved toward Prussia with a powerful force," and by Oct. 8, 1806, had reached the Prussian outposts. On the 14th he routed the enemy with fearful slaughter at Jena, and the same day Marshal Davoust achieved most important successes at Auer-stadt, the duke of Brunswick being among the killed. By this double encounter, in which more than 20,000 Prussians were killed, the strength of the kingdom was fatally broken, and Napoleon followed up his victories with such signal energy that, in two weeks from the commencement of hostilities, Oct. 27, he entered the Prussian capital in triumph. After occupying almost all the fortresses, and reducing such towns as still maintained a show of resistance, he issued from Berlin, Nov. 21, the famous decree, declaring the British islands in a state of blockade, forbidding all correspondence or trade .with England, defining all articles of British manufacture or produce as contraband, and the property of all British subjects as lawful prize of war.
Meanwhile the Russian allies, who had advanced as far as the Vistula, were driven back through Poland, and the French entered Warsaw. . A winter campaign was then begun against the Russians; but after the indecisive battle at Pultusk, Dec. 26, the Russians retreated to Ostrolenka, and the French behind the Vistula, toward the north. The month of January, 1807, was spent in repose and preparation by both sides, and on Feb. 7 and 8 a desperate engagement took place at Eylau, in which a loss of 50,000 men was divided between them, and both claimed the victory. The following May Napoleon attacked and conquered the important fortress of Dantzic, and having reenforced his army with 200,000 men, he once more advanced against the Russians. On June 14 the battle of Friedland was fought, and the Russians were so worsted that Alexander asked for an armistice. The two emperors met for the first time, June 25, on a raft in the middle of the Niemen, and on July 7 a treaty of peace was concluded at Tilsit. The Prussian monarch received back about half his dominions; the duchy of Warsaw was created and given to the elector of Saxony, an ally of the French, who was made a king; while the principal Prussian fortresses and seaport towns remained in the possession of the French till a more general peace should be concluded.
Russia obtained a part of Prussian Poland, and by secret articles was allowed to take Finland from Sweden. Out of the Prussian territory on the left bank of the Elbe, Hesse-Cassel, Hanover, and Brunswick, the new kingdom of Westphalia was formed, and bestowed upon Jerome. Soon after the treaty of Tilsit, England, conceiving that Napoleon, with the connivance of Russia, was about to make arrangements with Denmark and Portugal for the conversion of their fleets to his purposes, which would expose her to the assaults of the combined navies of Europe, sent a powerful squadron to bombard Copenhagen. Denmark, upon the surrender of that place, threw herself openly into the hands of Franoe. As to Portugal, however, which had refused to enforce the Berlin decrees against England, and despatched her fleet to Brazil, at the instigation of England, to avoid lending aid to France, Napoleon declared that the house of Braganza had ceased to reign, and sent Junot to occupy Lisbon. On Nov. 27, 1807, the prince regent, the queen, and the court of Portugal embarked for a foreign port, and on the 30th the French entered their capital.
In December of the same year Napoleon became involved in a serious controversy with the pope, which led to the annexation of the Adriatic provinces to his kingdom of Italy, and to the military occupation of Rome. At the same time Napoleon found a pretence for interfering in the affairs of Spain. A series of corrupt intrigues, in which the king, Charles IV., his queen, the favorite Godoy, and the pretender to the throne, Ferdinand, son of Charles, were engaged, had involved the internal administration of Spain in inextricable confusion. Napoleon cut the Gordian knot with his sword. Madrid was occupied by Muratj March 23, 1808; Charles and Ferdinand were both induced by Napoleon to abdicate at Bayonne, and he made Joseph king of Spain, transferring the kingdom of Naples to Murat. Many of the Spanish nobility acquiesced, but the great body of the people rose in arms against the French. Ferdinand, although a prisoner in France, was declared by them the legitimate monarch, while England sent immense supplies to sustain the insurrection, and Napoleon prepared to enforce his policy. A war which lasted nearly six years was thus begun in the peninsula. At the outset the Spaniards were successful.
On June 14 a French squadron was captured by the English fleet in the bay of Cadiz; on the 28th Marshal Moncey was repulsed in an attack upon Valencia; for two months Palafox made a heroic defence of Saragossa; on July 20 the new king made his triumphal entry into Madrid; on the 22d Gen. Dupont, with 18,000 men, surrendered to the Spaniards at Baylen; and a week later Joseph, with all his remaining forces, commenced a retreat beyond the Ebro. On Aug. 21 Marshal Junot was defeated at Vimi-eira by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and this battle led to the convention of Cintra, under which Portugal was evacuated by the French forces. Napoleon therefore deemed it necessary to take the field in person, and in the early part of November appeared in the north of Spain with 180,000 men. The Spaniards were rapidly defeated at Reynosa, Burgos, and Tudela, and on Dec. 4 he entered Madrid. The British troops, hastening to the assistance of the Spaniards, were pursued to and ineffectually attacked at Corunna, but their leader, the gallant Sir John Moore, was fatally wounded. The presence of Napoleon seemed to have redeemed nearly every reverse.
But in January, 1809, he was compelled to return to Paris to counteract the movements of Austria, which, taking advantage of the peninsular war, had sent forward large bodies of troops into Tyrol and Italy. On April 17 he assumed the command of his army, and before the close of the 22d he had completely routed the Austrian forces. On that day, at Eckmuhl, he defeated the archduke Charles; on May 13 he again entered Vienna; on the 21st and 22d he was worsted at Aspern and Essling, but on July 6 he more than recovered all his losses, gaining a stupendous victory at Wagram, which enabled him to dictate once more his own terms of peace. During these troubles the Tyrolese seized the opportunity to raise the standard of insurrection; the British made a descent upon the coast of Holland; Sir Arthur Wellesley was carrying on a most effective war in Spain, and the difficulties with the pope were renewed; yet Napoleon contrived to make face against all these assaults. By a decree of May 17 the Papal States were annexed to the French empire, which was followed by a bull of excommunication against Napoleon, when the pope himself was arrested and conveyed to Paris, where he remained a virtual prisoner till 1814. In the midst of his triumphs an attempt upon Napoleon's life was made, Oct. 13, by a young German named Stapss, from which he had a narrow escape.
To crown the 'events of the year, it was announced in December that Napoleon was about to repudiate his wife Josephine, by whom he had no issue, in order to contract an alliance with some of the dynastic families, and thus procure to himself a successor of royal blood. On the 16th of that month an act formally divorcing him was passed by the obedient commissioners of the senate; and on April 2, 1810, he was married to the archduchess Maria Louisa, a daughter of the emperor of Austria. Josephine retired with a broken heart to Malmaison, and the new empress took the place of the affectionate and devoted companion of his early years. From this union there was born a son on March 20, 1811, who was proclaimed in his cradle king of Rome. The French empire had now reached its greatest extent and its highest glory. In addition to the original 86 departments of France (including Corsica), it embraced three departments along the Alps, 15 W. of the Rhine, 15 beyond the Alps in upper and central Italy, and 7 Ulyrian provinces, besides exercising control in Holland, in Spain, in the Italian kingdoms, in Switzerland, and in the confederation of the Rhine. The French code and French ideas were predominant at Warsaw, at Milan, at Naples, in Holland, Westphalia, and Bavaria. To Sweden a king was given in the person of Bernadotte. Holland, after, having had his brother Louis as king, was annexed to France by decree of the senate, July 9, 1810. But in the Spanish peninsula the progress of the French was slow.
Sir Arthur Wellesley, who had recently been made Viscount Wellington, exhibited a degree of military skill and activity which easily held the marshals of Napoleon in check, and called for the presence of the grand master of war himself. On July 10, 1810, the fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo capitulated to Ney, but on Sept. 27 Massena was defeated by Wellington at the heights of Busaco, and on Nov. 14 driven from before the fortified lines of Torres Vedras. Early in 1811 Soult besieged Badajoz, and captured it on March 11, but on May 16 he was routed at Albuera. Thus a series of alternate successes and reverses marked the campaign throughout the year. The surrender of Valencia to Suchet, Jan. 9, 1812, was, however, the last of the French triumphs. Ten days afterward Wellington recaptured Ciudad Rodrigo; April 6, he recaptured Badajoz; July 22, he worsted Marmont at Salamanca; and 20 days later the capital of Spain was in the possession of the victorious English captain. But not until the battle of Vitoria, June 21, 1813, were the French driven entirely beyond the Pyrenees. Napoleon was personally occupied at the time with a greater enterprise than that of the reduction of Spain. His good understanding with Alexander of Russia had come to an end.
The czar complained of his encroachments upon the interests of Russia, especially upon her commerce in the northern seas, and the commencement of the year 1812 saw both emperors engaged in formidable preparations for war. The scheme of a universal monarchy, which dazzled the ambition of Napoleon, seems to have blinded him to the consequences of his acts, or to have allured him to conquest with utter indifference to other results. A " grand army " of more than 500,000 men was gathered on the frontiers of Poland to enter upon the Russian campaign - one of the most stupendous as it was one of the most disastrous events in the records of history. Three hundred thousand Russians assembled on the banks of the Niemen to oppose the mighty force of the French. On June 24, 1812, Napoleon crossed the river, and the Russians retired step by step before the invaders. Tempests, rains, and famine scourged the camps of the French, and yet they pushed forward. Under the walls of Smolensk, on the evening of Aug. 16, a division of the Russians ventured to make a stand against an advanced division of the French, and before the morning of the 18th the entire city was a heap of smoking ruins.
Both the main armies drove rapidly on toward the city of Moscow. On Sept. 6, at the small village of Borodino, they halted, and came face to face with each other, resolved to risk a trial of strength. As the morning of the 7th dawned, a solitary gun announced the beginning of the fight; immediately 1,000 cannon belched forth their fire of death; more than 250,000 men were enveloped in the dense smoke of the conflict; and when the night fell more than 80,000 killed and wounded heaped the field. On the following day the Russians retired into Moscow, only to prepare the inhabitants to withdraw in a body before the irresistible arms of France. On the 15th, when Napoleon rode into the ancient capital, it was as silent as the desert, and he took up his residence in the Kremlin. But suddenly, at midnight, the city burst into flames in every direction, and the baffled French, enveloped in fire, were compelled to seek refuge in the desolate surrounding country. Napoleon lingered over the splendid ruins till Oct. 19, when, all his proposals for a peaceful adjustment of difficulties being rejected, he was reluctantly compelled to order a retreat.
At first the weather was fine, and only moderately cold; but soon the snow, the rain, fatigue, and swarms of harassing Cossacks threw the dispirited Frenchmen into disorder. Then commenced that terrible retreat of 120,000 men, which for various suffering and horror has no parallel in the annals of our race. Napoleon himself returned immediately to France, and was almost the first to announce his disaster in his own capital, so rapidly had he fled from the scene. The loss of the French and their auxiliaries in this campaign was 125,000 slain, 132,000 dead of fatigue, hunger, disease, and cold, and 193,000 made prisoners; yet the emperor had scarcely reached Paris when he issued orders for new conscriptions, and still thought of prosecuting the war. This dreadful reverse encouraged the European powers to a sixth coalition,' composed of Russia, England, Sweden, Prussia, and Spain, which early in the year 1813 sent forward its forces toward the Elbe, with a view to hem in the indomitable general, who seemed to set every misfortune at defiance. With an army of 350,000 men, in great part young troops, Napoleon repaired to Germany, where he won the battle of Ltltzen on May 2, and the battle of Bautzen on the 20th and 21st, but neither with decisive results.
On June 4 an armistice was agreed upon, when Napoleon repaired to Dresden, where Metternich on the part of Austria offered a mediation with a view to closing the war. But Napoleon would not agree to the terms which were proposed to him, fixing the limit of the French empire at the Rhine, and hostilities recommenced. From Aug. 24 to 27 a battle raged around the city of Dresden, with the preponderance of success on the side of the French; but, owing to the want of cavalry, Napoleon was unable to derive from it all the advantages for which he looked. The greater part of the month of September was passed in a desultory warfare, the French armies on the whole losing ground, and experiencing constant desertions on the part of their German allies. It was no longer merely the governments who were opposing Napoleon, but the people; and the prestige of popular sympathy, which had carried him along, even in the midst of nominal enemies, was beginning to fail. To the German masses the war had become a war of independence. (For a more detailed history of the great campaigns of 1813-'14, see Blucher.) On Oct. 16 the battle opened at Leipsic, and a gallant struggle on the part of the French showed that their energies were still fresh, and the genius of their leader unimpaired.
The 17th was a day of anxious suspense and rapid preparation. On the 18th the carnage was renewed, and Napoleon discovered that it would be necessary to retire beyond the Rhine. The morning of the 19th saw the dejected lines of the French slowly filing out of the city, when the allies forced their way into it, and by blowing up a bridge committed a sad havoc, and made some 25,000 prisoners. Thus, after an obstinate resistance of three days, Napoleon was compelled to retreat - a movement for which, prodigious as his genius was in assault and defence, he seemed to have but little capacity. As at Moscow, and later at Waterloo, his backward march was worse than a battle lost. Though he cut his way bravely through the Bavarians, his late friends, at ITanau (Oct. 30), yet when he crossed the Rhine but 80,000 remained of all his splendid army. He reached Paris Nov. 9, to encounter a strong feeling of dissatisfaction on the part of his own countrymen. The legislative body expressed a desire for peace, and could only be answered by a guard of soldiers.
Yet, with a fertility of resource and a genius for combination which were almost miraculous, Napoleon was prepared by the end of January, 1814, to enter upon another campaign, which is called the campaign of France. Prussia, Russia, and Austria were already on her eastern borders; Wellington had crossed the Pyrenees, and had laid siege to Bayonne; Ber-nadotte, crown prince of Sweden and late companion of the emperor, was coming down from the north at the head of 100,000 troops; and Murat, king of Naples, Napoleon's own brother-in-law, had entered into a secret treaty with Austria for the expulsion of the French from Italy. Thus surrounded on all sides by enemies, with his disposable force shattered and broken, the indomitable emperor still repulsed their attacks, and still continued to astonish Europe with dazzling achievements. But numbers as well as moral power were now against him; the allies succeeded in reaching the exterior defences of Paris; the capital, which for so many years had dictated law to all other capitals, was obliged to capitulate; and on March 31 Alexander and his allies entered Paris amid the acclamations of the people.
The senate, formerly his too servicable instrument, declared that " by arbitrary acts and violations of the constitution," Napoleon had forfeited the throne, and absolved all Frenchmen from their allegiance. His own generals insisted that he ought to abdicate, and on April 11 he signed his surrender of power. He was allowed the sovereignty of the island of Elba, with a revenue of 6,000,000 francs; and after taking leave of his army at Fontainebleau, he departed for his new abode. On May 4 he landed from the British frigate Undaunted, at Porto Ferrajo; and Louis XVIII. resumed the seat of his ancestors. - Ten months later, invited by a conspiracy of old republicans, joined to the Bonapartists, Napoleon, who had not ceased to watch and foment the intrigues of Paris, was secretly returning to France. Escaping from Elba, Feb. 26,1815, he landed at Cannes, not far from Frejus, March 1, with an escort composed of about 1,000 of his old guard. As soon as his arrival was known, parts .of the army, sent against him under Colonel Labe-doyere and Marshal Ney, joined his cause; and he made a triumphal progress toward Paris. Europe was overwhelmed with surprise at the suddenness of the apparition.
On March 20, and before a shot was fired, Louis XVIII. was driven from the throne to which he had just been restored by the combined armies of the world. The congress of Vienna, still in session, heard the news with astonishment, and instantly concerted a plan for conjoint resistance. The armies resumed their march toward the French frontier. Napoleon, hastily reorganizing the government, but on a basis more liberal than that of the empire, and having in vain attempted to open negotiations for peace, advanced to the encounter. Drained as France was by a long series of desolating conquests, upward of 200,000 men went forward to meet more than double that number of enemies. On June 15 Napoleon had crossed the Belgian frontier with 124,000 men; the next day he defeated the Prussians under Blucher, at Ligny; and at the same time he sent Ney against the English army at Quatre-Bras, where he was checked by Wellington. On the morning of the 17th the latter fell back upon Waterloo, and on the 18th the final battle was fought. (See Watee-loo.) The French were thoroughly dispersed, and the great captain hurried back to Paris. Once more the capital was occupied by foreign troops, and now also stripped of the treasures of foreign art with which the conqueror had adorned it; a war which had lasted for 23 years was closed; the legislature demanded a second abdication; on June 22, just 100 days after his resumption of power, the second abdication was signed; and Napoleon was required to embark instantly for the United States. But Napoleon, arriving at Rochefort with a view to fly, found that there would be little probability of escaping the vigilance of the British cruisers, and voluntarily surrendered himself to Capt. Maitland, of the British war ship Bellerophon. The British government ordered his detention as a prisoner, and finally consigned him to the island of St. Helena for life.
He landed at his place of imprisonment Oct. 16, 1815, and remained there, alternately fretting at the restraints imposed upon him and dictating memoirs of his extraordinary career, till May 5, 1821, when he died of an ulcer of the stomach, the same disease which had carried off his father. On the 8th of May his remains were interred beneath some weeping willows, near a fountain in Slane's valley; but 20 years afterward the king of the French, Louis Philippe, procured the removal of his ashes to France, where they were deposited Dec. 15, 1840, beneath a magnificent monument, in the Hotel des Invalides. - Napoleon's marvellous character and career have occupied numberless pens, and the most divergent judgments have been passed upon them; but he has almost universally been accorded the possession of unsurpassed military ability, of indomitable self-reliance, of prodigious energy, and of a lofty and commanding intellect. The bibliography of Napoleon forms a literature, and we can therefore refer only to a few of the leading works in French and English. The Memoires by Bourrienne, the Souvenirs historiques by the duchess d'Abrantes, the Memorial de Sainte-Helene by Las Oases, and the " Voice from St. Helena" by Barry O'Meara, are widely known, as are also the biographies of Napoleon by Sir Walter Scott, Lockhart, and Hazlitt. Besides these we must mention the various complete and selected editions of CEuvres de Napoleon; Recueil par ordre chronologiquede ses lettres, proclamations, etc. (2 vols., Paris, 1855); Le consulat et Vempire by Thiers (20 vols.), and Le consulat et Vempire, ou Histoire de France et de Napoleon Bonaparte, by Thibaudeau (10 vols.); the works of Montholon aud Gourgaud, under Napoleon's dictation (respectively 4 vols, and 2 vols.); Vie politique et militaire de Napoleon, by Jomini (4 vols.); Documents particuliers sur Napoleon: Cours diplomatique et politique, ex-trait du Moniteur (7 vols.); Memoires pour servir d l'histoire, by Savary (4 vols.); Precis des evenements militaires, by Mathieu Dumas (19 vols.); "History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena, from the Letters and Journals of the late Lieut. Gen. Sir Hudson Lowe " (3 vols.). Among valuable later histories of Napoleon are those by Elias Regnault (4 vols., 1846), by M. de Norvins (4 vols., 21st ed., 1851), by Begin (5 vols., 1858-'4), by Baron Martin (de Gray), (3 vols., 2d enlarged ed., 1858), and by Pierre Lanfrey (Paris, 1867 et seq.; English, London, 1871). See further, Gorrespon-dance de Napoleon ler (32 vols., 1858-69, the latter part edited under Prince Napoleon's direction as president of the committee of publication; abstract in German by Kurz, 3 vols., 1868-'70). - Josephine (Marie Josephe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie), first wife of the preceding, born at Trois-ilets, Martinique, in June, 1763, died at Malmaison, near Paris, May 29, 1814. Her father derived his surname Pagerie from a family estate near Blois, whence he had emigrated to Martinique, to serve as a naval officer under the marquis de Beauharnais, then in command of that island.
Her mother, Rose Claire des Verges de Sannois, belonged to a family which had likewise settled in the colonies. In December, 1779, she was married at Noisy-le-Grand, France, to the viscount de Beauharnais, then about 18 years of age. She went with her husband to Paris, where in the house of her mother-in-law, Mme. Fanny de Beauharnais, she became acquainted with literary society. Her grace and loveliness were admired, but the education which she had received at the convent of Port-Royal, adequate for colonial life, did not fit her for the society in which the viscount moved. The unhappiness arising from this cause was soon aggravated by the husband's gallantries and the wife's complaints. Beauharnais finally brought suit for divorce in 1785. After a trial lasting nearly a year the court exonerated Josephine from all charges, authorized a separation, and ordered the husband to provide for her support and that of her daughter, but awarded him the custody of the son. The whole Beauharnais family siding with Josephine, she took up her residence with her father-in-law, and in June, 1788, she visited her parents in Martinique. On her return to Paris in the autumn of 1790 she became reconciled with her husband, and after his imprisonment she was arrested herself while attempting to release him, and narrowly escaped sharing his death by the guillotine (1794). Mme. de Fontenay, afterward Mme. Tallien, one of her fellow prisoners, on recovering her liberty, procured the liberation of Josephine, and afterward the restoration to her of a portion of her husband's confiscated estates.
Among the many stories of the origin of her acquaintance with Bonaparte, that relating to the application of her son Eugene for his father's sword, and Josephine's visit to thank him for his kindness to her son, is regarded as the most authentic. At this time she had removed from the rue de l'Universite to a house in the rue Chantereine which she had purchased from Talma, and here she received many visitors, Bonaparte habitually spending his evenings in her society. She was married to him March 9, 1796, and in less than a fortnight afterward her husband went to the seat of war in Italy. She joined him at his request, but was appalled at the sight of the battlefield, and soon returned. Bonaparte continued in the midst of his arduous labors to address to her tender epistles, and to complain of her lukewarm return of his love. She was with him at Montebello and Udine in 1797, and in the latter part of that year she resumed her receptions at Paris, and was now a recognized leader of society. She wished to follow him to Egypt, but he insisted on her going to Plombieres for her health.
During his absence he was prejudiced against her by his sisters and other relatives, and on his return to Paris overwhelmed her with reproaches; but she soon appeased him, and after this the smoothness of their intercourse remained unruffled. In the first years of the consulate Josephine was at the zenith of her career. Her receptions at the Tuileries and Malmaison acquired great celebrity, and by her invariable goodness she won the hearts even of opponents. Yet she felt oppressed by the paraphernalia of court life, and it was at Malmaison only, with its magnificent pleasure grounds and embellishments of her creation, that she found relief from the burdens of etiquette. These became still more distasteful after her accession as empress (May 18, 1804). Napoleon's sisters attempted to exclude her from the coronation, mainly on the ground of her not having borne children to her husband. Nevertheless, she was crowned together with him as empress of the French (Dec. 2), but not afterward as queen of Italy. Previous to the coronation, the religious ceremony of marriage, which had not been observed at the time of their union, was celebrated.
She now saw much less of her husband than formerly, and his increasing neglect filled her with sad forebodings, which were fully confirmed after the battle of Wagram in 1809, when he decided upon a divorce. He had first intended to prepare her for this through the medium of her son Eugene, but on her indulging in bitter recriminations he broke it to her abruptly. The ceremony preceding the divorce took place on Dec. 15. Overcome by her emotion, she could not continue to read aloud the declaration of her assent, which had been drawn up for her, and was taken home almost lifeless. She was to remain in possession of her imperial rank and titles, and to receive an annuity of 2,000,000 francs. The emperor visited her repeatedly, and enabled her to keep up the semblance of a court at Malmaison, and after the capture of Paris she declared her willingness to join him at Elba, but was restrained by the fear of hurting the feelings of Maria Louisa. The czar Alexander offered his protection to her, and the king of Prussia and his son dined with her at Malmaison. She died of quinsy, and was buried in the church of Rueil, in a tomb of marble erected by Eugene and Hortense. Her first valet de chambre, Constant, described her as a lady of middle size, exquisitely shaped, and with an elasticity of motion which gave her an aerial appearance.
She had magnificent hair and eyebrows and dark blue eyes, and her expression was full of sentiment and kindness. The fortune-teller Mile. Lenormand published memoirs of her, which are regarded as utterly worthless, and the Histoire secrete by Lewis Goldsmith is deemed to be equally untrustworthy. The statement in the Memorial de Sainte-Helene that she wished to impose upon the nation a supposititious child she indignantly denied, maintaining that on the contrary this subterfuge was constantly pressed upon her by others. The Histoire de Vimpe-ratrice Josephine, by Joseph Aubenas (2 vols., Paris, 1857-'9), from authentic sources, throws a purer light upon her character. The Let-tres de Napoleon d Josephine, et de Josephine d Napoleon, et de la meme d sa fille (Paris, 1833), are also regarded as good authority; but the correspondence and memoirs published in 1819 have been denounced as apocryphal. - Maria Louisa, second wife of Napoleon I., born in Vienna, Dec. 12,1791, died there, Dec. 18, 1847. She was the eldest daughter of the emperor Francis I. of Austria, by his second wife Maria Theresa, whose father was Ferdinand IV. king of the two Sicilies. Having been taught, like all her relatives, to execrate the name of Napoleon, she was at first appalled at the idea of marrying him; but resigning herself to her fate, she left Vienna on March 13, 1810. She met Napoleon near Soissons March 28. The civil marriage took place at St. Cloud, April 1, and the religious ceremony was performed next day at the Louvre by Cardinal Fesch. Most of the cardinals declining to attend, as the pope had not ratified the divorce from Josephine, they were banished from the capital and forbidden to wear their scarlet gowns, and hence they were called the black cardinals.
Among the brilliant festivities of the marriage was a grand ball at the Austrian embassy, in the midst of which the building took fire and the empress was borne from the flames in the arms of Napoleon. She seemed at first to respond to her husband's warm affection, but she could not adapt herself to the society of the Tuileries, and her apathy and diffidence formed a striking contrast to her predecessor's vivacity. Her husband became still more attentive to her after the birth of a son in March, 1811. But she was as undemonstrative in her maternal as in all her other affections. She accompanied Napoleon to Dresden in May, 1812, where all the German princes paid homage to her. During the emperor's absence he appointed her regent, with a board to the decision of which she left the direction of public affairs. The emperor having ordered her to leave Paris on the entrance of the allies, she did not venture to disobey him, though urged by several of his relatives to remain at her post. She placed herself with her son under the protection of her father, and was easily persuaded to refrain from joining her husband at Elba. She never saw him again, and evinced no interest in his fate.
The allies allowed her to retain for life the title of imperial majesty, and the congress of Vienna made her duchess of Parma, Piacen-za, and Guastalla. After Napoleon's death in 1821, she contracted a morganatic marriage with Count Albert Adam von Neipperg, an Austrian general, then in his 47th year, who had been her chamberlain in 1815, and her reputed lover. He was divorced from his first Italian wife, by whom he had a son, who married Princess Mary of Wurtemberg. Maria Louisa bore him several children, and made him prime minister of Parma. He died April 22, 1829. During the disturbances in 1831 she was absent from her capital until order was restored by the Austrians; and shortly after the accession of Pius IX. in 1840, when a strong revolutionary excitement again pervaded Italy, she took her final departure from Parma. She was highly educated and attractive in person, her beauty being of the blonde Tyrolese style; but Lamartine properly characterizes her as a commonplace and motherly woman, fitted rather to shine in private life than to be associated with memorable events. Her fidelity was never suspected by Napoleon, who to the last regarded her as an incarnation of virtue and simplicity.
See Napoleon et Marie Louise, souvenirs histo-riques, by Meneval; Memoires anecdotiques, etc, by Bausset; and Memorial de Sainte-He-lene, by Las Cases. - Napoleon II. (Napoleon Franqois Charles Joseph, duke of Reichstadt), son of Napoleon I. and Maria Louisa, born in Paris, March 20, 1811, died in Schonbrunn, July 22, 1832. He was baptized at Notre Dame by his grand-uncle Cardinal Fesch. The archduke Ferdinand represented the emperor of Austria as godfather, and his godmother was Madame Lastitia. His father bestowed upon him the title of king of Rome, and on his abdication designated him as his successor to the imperial throne as Napoleon II., and he was recognized as such by the executive committee appointed by the chambers previous to the final accession of Louis XVIII. in 1815. The countess Montesquiou, the governess of the young prince, accompanied him to Austria, where his education was perfected under the direction of Count Maurice Dietrichstein. The right of succession to his mother's dominions in Parma being withdrawn from him in 1817, the emperor of Austria conferred on him in July, 1818, the rank of an Austrian prince with the title of duke of Reichstadt, and provided him with eminent teachers, Metternich being charged with the superintendence of his studies.
The feeble efforts made after the revolution of 1830 in his favor were altogether unavailing, but the prince became more and more interested in the history of his father's military career, and Mar-mont, whom he met at the English ambassador's house in Vienna, gave him for three months a course of instruction on the Napoleonic campaigns. His military training having been the object of special care, he rapidly passed through various promotions, and in 1831 he commanded as lieutenant colonel one of the Hungarian infantry regiments of Vienna. He died of laryngeal phthisis, in the same room in which his father had dictated peace to Austria, and was buried in Vienna in the vaults of the Austrian imperial family, in the church of St. Augustine. His eyes, remarkable for depth and brilliancy, reminded one of those of his father, and in his placid and amiable disposition he resembled his mother. On the establishment of the second empire in 1852, he became known as Napoleon II. in the order of imperial succession.
His biographers are De Montbel (Paris, 1832-'3), Lecomte (de la Marne, 1842), Guy (de l'Herault), and J. de Saint-Felix (1856).