Jura, an island off the W. coast of Argyle-shire, Scotland, one of the inner Hebrides; area, about 85 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 761. It is separated from the mainland on the east by the sound of Jura, about 5 m. wide, from the island of Islay on the southwest by a narrow strait 1 3/4 m. wide, and from the island of Scar-ba on the north by the gulf and strait of Cor-ryvrecken. Its length is 27 m., and its greatest breadth 7 m. On the west the coast line is broken by a narrow deep indentation, called Loch Tarbert, which nearly cuts the island in two, penetrating to within a mile of Tarbert bay on the east. The western shores are bleak and rugged, but the eastern are more pleasing, having green slopes and a belt of plain. A ridge of rugged mountains traverses the entire length of the island, rising at three points, into high conical peaks, called the Paps of Jura, the highest of which is 2,566 ft. There is little arable land, only 600 acres being under cultivation. Oats, barley, potatoes, and flax are raised, and large flocks of sheep and goats are fed upon the mountains. From 1,000 to 1,200 head of cattle are exported annually. There are excellent slate quarries and a very fine sand for glass making. The island is famous for its red deer, and for remarkable caverns on its E. coast.
With some adjacent islands it forms the united parish of Jura and Colonsay.
Jura, a range of mountains between Switzerland and France, extending about 180 m. in length, from the waters of the Rhone in the department of Ain on the S. W. to those of the upper Rhine in a N. E. direction. The great valley of Switzerland and the lake of Neufchatel lie along its S. E. base, and over these from its summits may be seen Mont Blanc and the principal peaks of the Alpine chain. The Jura, like the Appalachian chain of the United States, consists of parallel ridges including narrow longitudinal valleys, along which the rivers flow in one or the other direction, occasionally passing through a break in the mountains into the next valley. In their external form, and the wave-like arrangement of the stratified rocks of which they are composed, the resemblance is still more striking. They occupy a belt of country averaging about 30 m. in width; and the highest summits, which are mostly in the S. part of the range, attain nearly the same elevation as the White mountains in New Hampshire. The principal summits are Cret de la Neige, Reculet de Toiry, Mont Tendre, Dole, Pie de Marmiers, Chasse-ron, Chasseral, Credoz, and Colomby; the first named of which is 5,653 ft., and the last 5,200 ft. high.
The principal strata are limestones of the oolite formation, named the Jura from their abundance in this range, and with them are associated shales and sandstones, including beds of gypsum. The highest summits of the Jura lose their snowy winter covering in the summer, and are then green with dense forests of fir. The growth below is in great part of walnut, groves of which surround almost every village. In the valleys are found some of the richest pasture lands in Switzerland, where are produced the Gruyere and other cheeses famed throughout Europe. Great numbers of cattle are reared and fed on the mountains. The Jura and the intermediate undulating country abound in wooded hills, among which rocky masses project at intervals above the fertile slopes, which by the aid of irrigation yield three crops of grass annually. The most picturesque scenery is presented by the Val Moutiers, or Minister Thal, between Basel and Bienne, the pass of Klus at the foot of the Ober-Hauenstein, and the lac de Joux. - The name Jura has also a wider application than to the mountain range above described; the continuation of the same limestone country through Swabia and Franconia being distinguished as the German Jura, situated between the Rhine and Main, and divided by the rivers Danube and Altmuhl into three parts, viz.: the Black Forest Jura (der Schwarzwald-Jura), situated between the Rhine and Danube; the Swabian Jura (der Schwabische Jura), on the Danube and Altmuhl, and designated by various names in various localities, as Ober-Ho-henberg, Rauhe Alp, etc.; and the Franconian Jura (der Frankische Jura), between the Altmiihl and Main, traversed by the Ludwig's canal, and noted for its bone caves.
Jura, an E. department of France, in Franche Comte, bordering on Switzerland and on the departments of Haute-Saone, Doubs, Ain, Saone-et-Loire, and C6te d'Or; area, 1,926 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 287,634. The name is derived from the mountains which cover two thirds of the department. The surface presents three divisions, viz.: the western part, consisting of a low plain about 7 m. in width; the first mountain elevation rising suddenly from the plain and forming a plateau nearly 10 m. wide; and the high mountain district, consisting of lofty summits and deep valleys. The highest summits are Reculet, La Dole, and Mont Poupet, which rise between 5,000 and 6,000 ft. above the sea. Among the numerous rivers are the Ain, Loue, and Doubs, which are navigable. The Bienne is the most important of the smaller rivers. There are many marshes and lakes. The Rh6ne and Rhine canal traverses the N. part of the department, and there are several lines of railway. Large quantities of squared timber are floated in rafts down the small rivers into the Sa6ne and thence to Lyons. The forests abound with pine and oak timber. Agriculture is highly advanced, and dairy farming is extensively carried on, one of the chief productions being Gruyere cheese.
The annual production of wine amounts to 8,500,000 gallons; the best wines are those of Lons-le-Saulnier and Poli-gny. Coal and iron mines are worked. Lithographic stone, marble, and alabaster are quarried, and there are extensive salt works at Montmorot and Salins. The department is divided into the arrondissements of Lons-le-Saulnier, Poligny, Sainte-Claude, and Dole. Capital, Lons-le-Saulnier.