Under the title Germanic Races and Lan-guages, the development of the Dutch language, and the relation which it holds to the other languages of the Teutonic group, have been discussed. The Dutch alphabet consists of 23 letters, counting ch. It does not include c, q, x, or y, which occur only in words derived from other languages. H is always an aspirate, and is never written, as in German, merely to lengthen a vowel. G and ch are nearly alike, resembling in sound the ch in the Scotch loch; g is not quite so guttural. When I is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant, a slight short e is sounded between it and the consonant. Sch is not pronounced together as in German, but the s and the ch are distinct, as in schip (pronounced nearly skhip), ship; and when at the end or in the middle of a word it sounds almost like a simple 8. V has always The flat sound of f. The other consonants are sounded as in English. The vowels are generally sounded as in German, but are distinguished as long when ending a syllable, and as broad when followed by a consonant in the same syllable.
Thus a in man, man. sounds as in fat; in laten, to let, as in psalm; and aa is always long: e in bel, bell, as in met; in geren, to give, like a in mate, and ee the same; but e at the end of words of more than one syllable is very short, or nearly mute: i as in him, or if long as ie in grief: o as in German ton, or if long as in hope, and oo the same: u as in hut, but if long, at the end of a syllable, like the French u or the Germans, and uu the same. Of diphthongs and other compound vowel sounds, au is pronounced like ou in house; ei like i in mine; eu like the German ö in Vögel, or the French eu in feu; ie as in grief; oe like oo in boon; ou as in out, except that the u sound is more distinguishable; ui nearly like oy in joy: of aai, the aa is long, and the i scarcely sounded; of eeuw, the ee is long (Eng. a), and uw follows it like the English uv; of ooi, oo is long as in hope, and followed by a short i sound; of ieuw, uw is sounded like uw in German, and the ie is almost mute; oei sounds almost like the French oui. Ai, sounded like i in mine, is now out of use, and ei is written instead; thus, heker for kaaizer. The double vowel ij must be spoken a little broader than ei.
This compound has been substituted in recent times for y, which is still used in foreign words and generally in writing. A trema or diaeresis is used to denote that succeeding vowels must He pronounced separately; the circumflex accent indicates that the letter d has been omitted, as Neerland for Nederland; the acute accent, that a vowel has to be emphasized; and the apostrophe is used instead of letters and syllables left out, as's for des, of the, and 'rtoe for daartoe, thereto. - Three gen-ders are distinguished, masculine, feminine, and neuter; and four cases, nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative. The definite article is declined as follows: masc. sing. nom. de, gen. des or tan den, dat. den or aan den, ace. den; fern. sing. nom. de, gen. der or van de, dat. der or aan de, ace. de; neuter sing. nom. het, gen des or ran het, dat. den or aan het, acc. het; plural for all three genders, nom. de, gen. der or van de, dat. to or aw. de (sometimes to in the feminine, acc. de. The indefinite article een receives when inflected terminations corresponding to those of the definite article singular The plural in nouns is generally formed by adding en to the singular, as meening, opinion, meeningen, opinions; but nouns ending in el, er, aar, and ier take en or s; those in m, en, and diminutives in je, take s; those in held change into heden; those in man change into lieden (koopman, pl.
Koplieden, as in Ger Kanfinann, pl. Kaufleute); those in e take only n; and those with a broad vowel double the final consonant before taking en. In the various cases, nouns remain invariable except the masculine and neuter genitive singular, which take s, the neuter dative singular, which receives an e, and the dative of masculine and neuter plurals terminating in s, which is changed into en. Proper names are declined only with the prepositions van and aan, but have a possessive case in s, which is usually connected with it, and separated by an apostrophe only when the name ends in a long vowel; thus, Pieters boek, Peter's book, and Attila's dood, Attila's death. The Dutch forms compound words with the same facility as the German. It is rich also in diminutives ending in je, and forms feminines either by adding in, as een keizer, an emperor, eene keizerin, an empress; or by changing the termination er into ster, as een zanger, a singer, eene zangster, a songstress; or by adding es, as een baron, a baron, eene barones, a baroness; or by changing man into vouw, as een koopman, a merchant, eene koop-vrouw, a woman merchant.
The declension of adjectives is limited to their taking an e when preceded by an article terminating in e or er, or en when the article ends in en or es: thus, des goeden mans, of the good man; der goede vrouw, to the good woman; den goeden hinder-en, to the good children. Adjectives are compared by adding er for the comparative and st for the superlative; but if the adjective ends in r in the positive, the comparative is formed by adding der. The principal personal pronouns are ik, I; wij, we; gij, thou or you; hij, lie; zij, she; het, it; and zij, they: the posses-sives, mijn, my or mine; uw, thy or thine; zijn, his; haar, her or hers; onze, our or ours; hun, your or yours; haar, their or theirs: the inter-rogatives, trie, who; wat, what; welke, welk, which; hoedanige, hoedanig, which (what kind): the demonstratives, deze, dit, this; gene, that; die, dat, that; degene or diegene, he who. These are all declined more or less after the manner of the definite article. The first ten cardinal numbers are één, twee, drie, vier, vijf zes, zeven, acht, negen, and tien; from which ordinals are formed by adding de or ste, as de vierde, the fourth, de achtste, the eighth. - The infinitive ends in en, and whatever precedes this termination is the root of the verb.
The indicative present consists of the root itself, with a final t in the second person singular and plural and the third person singular, and with the addition of en in the first and third persons plural. The imperfect of the indicative and the subjunctive is formed by adding de, except when the root ends in f p, To, s, t, or eh, when te is added instead; and when the root ends in tt or dd, e is inserted before the de. The present participle is formed by adding de to the infinitive, and the past participle by prefixing ge (generally) and adding d or t. The subjunctive present is formed by adding e to the root, and the imperative is the root itself. There are four auxiliary verbs: helben, to have; zijti or wezen, to be; zullen, to be bound (to be about); and worden, to become (to be). The inflection of a regular verb, therefore, is as follows: Active infinitive, beminnen, to love; present participle, beminnende, loving; past participle, bemind, loved: indicative present, ik bemin, I love; imperfect, ik beminde, I loved; past indefinite, ik heb bemind, I have loved; pluperfect, ik had bemind, I had loved; future, ik zal beminnen, 1 shall love, ik zal bemind hebben, I shall have loved; conditional, ik zoude beminnen, I should love; conditional past, ik zoude bemind hebben, I should have loved; imperative, bemin, love: subjunctive present, dat ik beminne, that I may love; imperfect, dat ik beminde, that I might love: passive infinitive, bemind worden; participles, bemind icordende, bemind geworden; indicative present, ik word bemind, lam loved; imperfect, ik werd bemind, I was loved; past indefinite, ik ben bemind geworden, I have been loved, ik was bemind geworden, I had been loved; future, ik zal bemind worden, I shall be loved; future perfect, ik zal bemind geworden zijn, I shall have been loved; conditional, ik zoude bemind worden, I should be loved, ik zoude bemind geworden zijn, I should have been loved; imperative, word bemind, be loved; subjunctive, dat ik bemind worde, that I may be loved; imperfect, dat ik bemind wierde, that I might be loved; past indefinite, dat ik bemind getcorden zij, that I (may) have been loved; pluperfect, dat ik bemind geworden ware, that I had been loved.
Neuter verbs are conjugated with hebben when an action is implied, and with zijn when expressing a state of existence. The word it used in English for impersonal verbs is expressed in Dutch by het; but when used in the combination " it is," it is expressed by daar or er: thus, het regent, it rains; daar or er is, it is. There is a multitude of irregular verbs; their prominent features are, that one class having ij in the infinitive take e in the imperfect and participle, as blijven, to remain, bleef, gebleven; another with e or i in the infinitive takes o in the imperfect or participle, as binden, to bind, bond, gebonden; a third with e in the infinitive and participle has short a in the imperfect, as meten, to measure, mat, gemeten; a fourth with a in the infinitive and participle has oe or ie in the imperfect, as dragen, to carry, droeg, gedragen, and slapen, to sleep, sliep, geslapen; a fifth with long e in the infinitive has short a in the imperfect, long o in the participle; a sixth with short e in the infinitive has ie in the imperfect and short o in the participle; a seventh changes only the participle; and an eighth, specially known as irregular verbs, changes both the consonant and the vowel of the root in the imperfect and the participle, as staan, to stand, staand, gestaan; kunnen, to be able, konde, gekonnen.
Prepositions, with few exceptions, govern the accusative. - Literature. The first development of the vernacular literature of the Netherlands was Flemish rather than Dutch. The beginning of Dutch literature proper (besides which the Netherlands boast of a host of eminent writers in Latin, embracing such names as Erasmus, Grotius, Chr. Huygens, Spinoza, and Boerhaave) dates from the 16th century. But as early as the beginning of the 15th literary persons formed associations for holding poetical tournaments and giving theatrical representations. They were known as the chambers of the rederijkers, presumably so called after the French rhetoricien, which term then signified nearly the same as "poet." Only the rederijkerskamer of Amsterdam attained the character of a literary academv. Three members of it, Coornhert (1522-'90), Spiegel (1549-1612), and Roemer Visscher (1547-1620), may be considered the real founders of modern Dutch literature. Coornhert's productions are mostly treatises on morality and theology and poems. The posthumous poem of Spiegel, the Hartspiegel, is ethical. This triumvirate rendered great service by the grammatical works published under their direction by the Amsterdam kamer.
Linguistic labors of still greater importance were the Thesaurus Teutonicoe Lin-guce by the celebrated printer Plantin (1514-'89), and the Etymologicum Teutonicoe Lingvoe by Cornelis van Kiel (Cornelius Kilianus). At the beginning of the 17th century, and for many years later, Holland, a powerful, wealthy, and free commonwealth, was preeminently the literary country of Europe. The devotion of the learned to the ancient languages was ardent and almost without parallel elsewhere; but a golden age of vernacular literature was ushered in by P. C. van Hooft (1581-1647), who gave a sweetness and harmony before unknown to Dutch speech. His amatory and Anacreontic lines have not been excelled by any later writer; and his Nederlandsche His-torien, embracing the years between 1555 and 1587, is a model of stately historical narrative. Jacob Cats (1577-1660), or "Father Cats," as his countrymen love to style him, wrote for the multitude, and became their favorite. But J. van den Vondel (1587-1679) is the greatest poetical name of the century.
He wrote much, dramas, lyrics, and satires, and had a multitude of disciples and imitators, one of the best of whom is Antonides van der Goes (1647-'84). J. Oudaan (1628-'92) is the author of two dramas worthy of note, Johanna Gray and Koning Konradijn; and other dramatic writers are Bredero (died in 1618), S. Coster, W. van der Nieuwelandt (1584-1635), the Fleming J. Zevecot (1604-'46), whose Belegh ran Ley-den ("Siege of Leyden") may still be read with pleasure, and L. Rotgans (1645-1710), whose dramas are much better than his tedious epic, Willem III. A man of large learning and much descriptive talent, C. van Huygens (1596-1687), produced some not unpleasing didactic poems, like the Zedenprinten ("Pictures of Manners"), Hofwijk, and Voorhut, which with others he included in a collection bearing the title of Korenbloemen (" Blue-bottles"). A rhymed narrative, the Masker van der Wereld, by the Flemish Jesuit A. Poir-tiers (1606-75), was once very popular. The Lof der Geldzucht ("Eulogy of Avarice ") and the domestic elegies of J. de Dekker (died in 1666) are still frequently quoted; Roselijns 0 'hies is a pretty idyllic effusion by Jonck-tyns (born 1600); and the pastoral poems of Weilekens (1658-1726) are graceful and imaginative.
The almost universal use of Latin, as a language through which a vastly larger audience could be reached, left little room for Dutch prose. Several translations of the Bible, both from the original tongues and the Vulgate, some Biblical commentaries, and other theological treatises, met with a wide circulation. The Batavische Arhtdia of J. van Heemskerk (1597-1656), suggested by the Decameron? of Boccaccio, is the only work that deserves the name of a romance. Besides Hooft, the historians are P. C Bor (1559-1635), E. van Meteren (1535-1612). L. van Aitze-ma (1600-69), and G. Brandt (16-26-85). The Dutch navigators, as Barentz and Heemskerk in their search for a northeast passage, Gerrits-zoon in the Australian regions, and Noort and Spilbergen in the extreme Orient, added much to geographical knowledge in this century. Many of these explorers wrote narratives of their voyages, versions of which appeared in various languages. Among these works are J. Nieuwhof on China (1665), P. Baldens on Ceylon and Malabar (1672), M. G. de Vrieson Japan (1612). G. Schouten on the East Indies (1696), C. de Bruvn on eastern Europe and western Asia (1698-1711), and W. Bosman on Guinea (1704). - The 18th century offers a marked c ontrast to its predecessor.
The literature of the 17th century gave way in the 18th to imitation of French models. Few authors escaped this contagion. One of these is II. C. Poot (1689-1733), the farmer poet, whose style is pure and natural, and whose erotic and idyllic verses are marked by ease and liveliness. His most striking pieces, perhaps, are Wachten ("Watehing") and Landleven (" Rural Life"). A Biblical epic which has considerable merit, but which was followed by bad imitations, is the Abraham de Aartsvader of A. Hoogvliet (1687-1763). The Rotfestroom of D. Smits (1702-52) also originated a school known as the stream poets, who sang the beauties of all the Dutch rivers. Of the two brothers W. van Haren (died in 1768) and O. Z. van Haren (died in 77!), the elder left a legendary, knightly tale in verse, Gevallen ran Friso, and some lighter compositions, among which are Leoni-das, Menschelijk leren ("Human Life"), and the Hof van den rrede ("Court of Peace"); the younger was the author of two tragedies and a lyrical epic, De Geuzen, woven out of the popular national ballads.
A sort of transition poetical period, the dawn of the day of Bilderdijk and Tollens, begins with 1780 It was initiated by J. Bellamy (1757-'86), whose Roosje is the most touching and beautiful ballad in the language, and was further characterized by the astronomer P. Nieuwland (1764-'94), whose Orion is a stately and in some portions sublime epic, and by H. van Alphen (died 1803), whose poems for children have been frequently reprinted. The purest prose of the century is that of J. van Effen (1684-1735), who possessed not a little of the humor and grace of his model, Addison, of whose chief work his Hollandsche Spectator is an imitation. The romance style was developed by two women, A. Deken (1741-1804) and E. Bekker (1738-1804); their novels, written in conjunction, though somewhat diffuse, are successful pictures of Dutch life and manners. The lengthened Vaderlandsche historie of J. Wagenaar (1709-,73) is impartial and trustworthy, but the diction is rather dull and heavy. The other historians are G. van Loon (born 1683), S. Stijl (1731-1804), and A. van Kluit (1737-1807), who wrote a very learned Historia Critica Comitates Hollandice et Zelanidioe, and a Historie der hollandschc staatsregering.
The Vaderlandsche woordenboeh (1785-1800), in nearly 40 volumes, by J. Kok, is a treasury of information concerning the history and topography of Holland. In philology L. Ten Kate (1674-1731) anticipated many of the ideas of Grimm and the later Teutonic school. He and B. Huydecoper (1695-1778), who edited one or two of the old Flemish chronicles, were of great service to their native tongue. D. van Hoogstraaten (1658-1724) attained some eminence as a lexicographer. In science the philosophers W. J. 'sTGravesande (1688-1742), N. Hartsoeker (1656-1725), and P. van Musschen-broek (1692-1761) gained a European renown; as did those disciples of Boerhaave, P. Camper (1722-'89) and G. van Swieten (1700-'72). - The modern revival of Dutch letters is coincident with the French revolution, having fairly commenced some little time before the opening of the 19th century. Rhijnvis Feith (1753-1824) did much toward bringing in this new epoch; his reputation is still maintained by a series of admirable historical Oden en gedichten. The Taal, Schilderkunst, and other productions of 0. Loots (1765-1834) resemble the style of llclmers, but are much superior in energy and force.
E. A. Borger (died in 1820), a theologian, A. Simons (died in 1834), and J. Kantelaar (1759-1821) have also left several tasteful and polished lyrics. But the greatest of modern, if not of all Dutch poets is Willem Bilderdijk (1756-1831). The most remarkable of his multitudinous works is an epic entitled De ondergang der eerste wereld ("Destruction of the First World"), of which only the first five books were completed. The same author's Geschiedenis des vaderlands, in prose, was published after his death by B. F. Tijdeman. Another very popular poet is II. C. Tollens (1780-1856); especially admirable are his narrative poem De overic intering der Hollanders op Nova Zembla, an account of Barentz's famous expedition in 1594-'6, his tragedy De hoekschen en kabeljaauicschen, and his stirring national lyric, the Wapenkreet. The example and influence of Bilderdijk and Tollens have given rise to a number of minor bards. Some of the most meritorious are J. F. Bosdijk (died 1850); B. H. Lulofs (1787-1849), author of the Watersnood; W. Messchert (died in 1844), whose De goude bruiloft is justly praised; II. A. Spandaw (died in 1855), of whose works the Neerlands zeeroem and the Vaderlandsche poezij are popular; W. de Clercq (1793-1844), a celebrated improvisator; J. Immerzeel (1776-1841), also known for his biographies of the artists; B. Klijn (1764-1829); A. 0. W. Staring van den Wildenborch (1767-1840), the best modern humorist, of whose peculiar manner his Iamben and Zephir en Cloris are good examples; and P. Moens (1767-1843). Modern lyrical and descriptive poets are I. da Costa, a Jew, who after the decease of Tollens occupied the highest place in the modern Dutch Parnassus; 0. G. Withuys, S. J. van den Bergh, J. van Beers, J. A. Alberdingk Thijm, L. van den Broek, and J. J. L. ten Kate. Among those who wrote for the stage in the latter part of the last century were S. J. Wis-selius (1769-1845), J. Nomsz, J. van "Walre (1759-1837), II. H. Klijn, and A. Loosjes (1761-1818), the last of whom also gave to the world some pleasant tales and sketches.
Still later dramatists are the prolific comedy writer Kuysch and J. Hilman. The novels of E. Kist (1753-1822) and A. Fokke (died in 1812) are still much read; but they have been excelled by the romances of J. van Lennep (1802-68), a son of D. J. van Lennep (1774-1853). His fame was established by his Nederlandsche le-gendeji, and his popularity was increased by the novels De roos van Dehama and De lot-gevallen van Klaasje Zevenster. Several of his works have been translated into English. He seems to have successfully combated the undue love in his country for imitations of French standards. He selected Byron and Walter Scott as his models, and his novels and historical romances show that he did not servilely copy them, but strove to retain a truly national spirit. Van der Hage is his equal in historical narrative, but is not as felicitous in pure fiction, wherein Adriaan Bogaers stands much nearer to him in talent and fame. Bo-gaers's most celebrated productions are Joche-bed and De togt van Heemskerk naar Gibraltar. Novelists of note of recent times, among others, are Schimmel, the author of Mary ffollis, Hofdijk, and Ten Brink, who has written masterly descriptions of colonial life in the East Indies. The names of Da Costa, Van Oosterzee, Schultjes, Ter Haar, and Tiedeman have won distinction for theological learning.
Jurisprudence and political economy have been ably represented by Den Beer Poortugael, Noordziek, De Bruyn Kops, Heineken, Den Tex, and Wintgens. Valuable medical works have appeared from the pens of Donkersloot, Cornelius, Huet, Eschauzier, and Berns. Chemistry, pharmacy, and the natural sciences generally have been enriched by the labors of Bleeker, Harting, Van Otterloo, Vorsterman van Oijen, Suringar, Opwyrda, Luijten, and Mulder. Philosophical works have been contributed among others by Kinker, Heringa, Vitringa, Wijck, Spruyt, Opzoomer, Burger, and Snellen. Steijn Parve, Bleeck van Rijse-wijk, and Vorstman have written on the science of education. Ancient and oriental languages, as well as mythology and archaeology, have received fresh contributions from Van Herwerden, Boot, Francken, Van Cappelle, Ekker, Rijnenberg, Grashuis, Kroon, and De Goeje. Numerous books have appeared to facilitate the study of modern languages. Among them are specially noteworthy Halbertsma's Lexicon Frisicum, Oudeman's Bijdrage tot een middel- en oud-nederlandsch woordenboeJc, and Winkler's Algemeen nederduitsch en friesch dialecticon. The present period has produced an abundance of historical, geographical, and ethnological works.
Bladzijden's Uit de ge-schiedenis van Neerlands roem en grootneid, Kemper's GescMedenis van Nederland na 1830, Muller's De Staat der vereenigde Kederlanden in denjaren zijner wording 1572-'94, Hofdijk's Het nederlandsche volk geschetst in de ver-schillende tijdperken zijner onticill-eling, and Elbert's Leven van Willem den Eerstcn, Prins van Oranje, have thrown considerable light on the history of the Netherlands. Other historical works of value have been contributed by Nugens, Wijne, Veth, Van den Bergh, Ter Haar, De Jonge, Meinsma, Witkamp, Dooren-bos, Groen van Prinsterer, Gericke van Her-wijnen. Van Vloten, and Vreede. Among works on mathematical, mechanical, and military science, Kuijpers's Geschiedenis der ncderlandscJie artillerie van de vroegste tijden, Wageningen's Leerboefc der analytische meet-Jcunst, Reuven's De Waal en Rijndijlcn, and Grothe's Mechanische technologic may be mentioned as excellent compendiums of the special branches. - See Mone, Uebcrsicht der nieder-landischen Volksliteratur alterer Zeit (Tubingen, 1838); Jonckbloet, Geschiedenis der mid-denederlandsche letteriunde (Amsterdam, 1851 et seq.); Hofdijk, Gescliiedenis der neder-landsche letterlcunde (1856); and Van Vloten, Schets van de geschicdenis der ncderlandsche letteren (1871).