Lobegott Tischendorf (Latinized AEnothe-us) Friedrich Constautin von, a German Biblical palaeographer, born at Lengenfeld in the Voigt-land, Saxony, Jan. 18, 1815, died in Leipsic, Dec. 7, 1874. From 1834 to 1838 he studied philology and theology at Leipsic, where he published two prize essays: Doctrina Pauli Apostoli de Vi Mortis Christi satisfactoria (1837), and Dispittatio de Christo Pane Vitoe (1839), and a volume of poems entitled Mai-Tmospen (1838). He was for a year and a half a private teacher in the neighborhood of Leipsic, at which time he wrote Der junge Mysti-Jcer, a novel, published under the pseudonyme of Dr. Fritz. Devoting himself thereafter to textual criticism, he returned to Leipsic, wrote an essay on Matt. xix. 16, and a severe criticism of the published texts of the New Testament, with special reference to the edition of Scholz, and in 1841 published his own edition of the Greek Testament, embodying the various readings of the textus reccptus. The years 1841-'4 were in great part spent by him in visiting the various libraries of Europe for the purpose of collating, copying, and publishing the most important New Testament manuscripts in their possession.

In 1844, 1853, and 1859 he'made journeys through the East, visiting numerous libraries and monasteries of Asia Minor, Palestine, the Sinaitic peninsula, and Egypt. He published accounts of two of these journeys, Reise in den Orient (Leipsic, 1845-'6), and Aus dem heiligen Lande (1862). With the exception of the last journey, which he made under the auspices of the emperor of Russia, he received pecuniary assistance for his travels from the Saxon government. In 1842, while at Paris, he prepared an edition of the New Testament intended for the use of Catholics, giving the Latin Vulgate and a Greek text, rendered as far as possible conformable to it, in parallel columns. He published also in the same year a Greek text differing very little from his earlier Leipsic edition. In 1843 appeared the New Testament portion of his publication of the Ephraem palimpsest of the 5th century. Two years later, when the remainder of this edition was published, he was made professor extraordinary in Leipsic. The principal result of his first oriental journey, in 1844, was the discovery . of 43 leaves of a Septuagint manuscript of the 4th century, then called Codex Fredericks Augustanus, but subsequently discovered to form part of the Codex Sinaiticus. The fragment was published in 1846 in lithographed facsimile.

The same year also appeared the Monumenta Sacra Inedita, containing the manuscripts Fa, L, N, Wa, Y, and 6* of the Gospels, and B of the Apocalypse. In 1847 he issued a portion of a manuscript of the old Latin version of the Gospels, and the Wiener Jahrbacher brought out serially during the following years his edition of the old Latin Codex Bobbiensis. In 1849 Tischendorf published a second edition of his Leipsic Greek Testament of 1841, fully revised according to all the material so far collected, and in 1850 the same text with marginal readings of the textus recep-tus, a correct reprint of the Vatican edition of the Septuagint with marginal readings of the Ephraem and Alexandrine manuscripts, and the New Testament according to the Codex Amiatinus, probably the oldest manuscript of the Latin Vulgate. In 1851 he obtained the prize offered by the society of the Hague for the defence of the Christian religion, with a dissertation entitled De Evangeliorum Apo-cryphorum Origine et Usu, and published his Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, and a Synopsis Evangelica, a Greek harmony with the principal readings, and advocating the tripaschal theory.

In 1852 he published a Graeco-Latin manuscript of the Pauline epistles of the 6th century; in 1853 the Evangelia Apocrypha; and in 1854 a Novum Testamentum Triglottum, being the Greek text of 1849 revised, a critical edition of the Latin Vulgate, and Luther's German translation substantially after the edition of 1545, but corrected from other editions published in Luther's lifetime. The prolegomena and various addenda accompanying this work render it one of Tischendorf's most valuable publications. In his Anecdota Sacra et Pro/ana (1855) he gives an account of the manner in which he secured the numerous manuscripts, describing also their general character. The larger part of the manuscripts which he obtained were deposited in the library of the university of Leipsic, while others were sold to the British museum and the Bodleian library. In 1855 he began a new collection of Monumenta Sacra Inedita, in nine volumes, of which he completed seven, and a seventh and larger critical edition of his Greek Testament of 1849 (2 vols., 1859). In 1856 he added to his Septuagint of 1850 the Codex Chisianus version of the book of Daniel. In 1859 he was made ordinary professor of theology and Biblical palaeography, which chair was founded expressly for him.

His third oriental journey, made in this year, resulted in the discovery at the convent of St. Catharine, near Mt. Sinai, of the famous Codex Sinaiticus. (See Manuscript.) He gave the first account of it in his Notitioe Codicis Sinaitici (1860), and a more popular one in a pamphlet entitled Die Sinaibibel, ihre Entdeckung, Herausgabe und Erwerbung (1871). The Sinaitic manuscript was printed in facsimile type (4 vols, fob, St. Petersburg, 1862). Tischendorf received from the Russian government 100 copies, with permission to sell them at about $200 each. In 1863 was published an abridged edition of it, containing only the New Testament, Barnabas, and a portion of the Shepherd of Hennas, and giving the manuscript line for line, but in ordinary type. Tischendorf prepared in 1864 another edition of his Synopsis Evangelica, in which he adopted a large number of readings from the Codex Sinaiticus. His Novum Testamentum Groece ex Sinaitico Codice (1865) presented also the variations of the textus recep-tus and Vatican manuscript, and has a more elaborate introduction than the edition of 1863, for which however it does not form a complete substitute as a manual for critical purposes.

In the same year appeared his Wann wurden unsere Evangelien verfasst? which met with an enormous sale, though in many respects sharply criticised by eminent Biblical palaeographers. In 1866 Tischendorf published Apocalypses Apocryphoe, and added to a new edition of the treatise on the date of the Gospels a severe criticism of the arguments which had been brought out against his theories; and in this form the pamphlet was rapidly translated into nearly all modern languages. In Appendix Codicum celeberrimorum, Sinaitici, Vaticani, Alexandrini (1867), giving fragments of the Codex Sinaiticus found in the binding of some manuscripts, and an edition of the Alexandrine epistles of Clement of Rome, he expressed his opinion that one of the scribes of the Sinaitic manuscript wrote also the New Testament of the Vatican manuscript. The Novum Testamentum Vaticanum, a corrected edition of the one by Cardinal Mai, published by Tischendorf about the same time, was two years later supplemented by him with an Appendix Novi Testamenti Vaticani, which furnished also the Vatican text of the Apocalypse and corrected the errors of the main edition.

His subsequent publications are all signed Constantin von Tischendorf, instead of Con-stantin Tischendorf, Alexander II. having conferred upon him the rank of a hereditary noble. With the assistance of B. Harris Cow-per, he published in 1869, as the thousandth volume of the Tauchnitz collection of British authors, the authorized English version of the New Testament, with readings from the Sinaitic, Vatican, and Alexandrine manuscripts. In 1870 he brought out a corrected edition of the Novum Testamentum Groece ex Sinaitico Codice of 1865, and published a pamphlet, entitled Responsa ad Calumnias Roman as, in defence of his Novum Testamentum Vaticanum. The next year appeared a third edition of the Synopsis Evangelica*, in which several of the readings adopted for the second edition are omitted. In 1872 he completed the important eighth larger critical edition of his Greek Testament, which for fulness and accuracy excels all that preceded it. He published also the first of the two parts of an abridged edition of this valuable work; the second part was not completed at the time of his death. The minor editions of Tauchnitz and Brockhaus (1873) are corrected by this critical edition.

In 1873 Tischendorf completed Theodor Heyse's edition of the Latin Vulgate, and in 1874 he published in conjunction with Baer and Delitzsch a Liber Psalmo-rum Hebraicus et Latinus ab Hieronymo ex Hebrceo conversus. Shortly before his death appeared his 22d edition of the New Testament.