Lubeck, one of the three free cities of Germany, situated in lat. 53° 51' N, lon. 10° 41' E., on the Trave, 35 m. N. E. of Hamburg; area of the city and its territory, which is bounded by the Baltic, Mecklenburg, Lauen-burg, Holstein, and Oldenburg, 109 sq. m.; pop. of Lubeck proper and its suburbs in 1871, 39,743, of whom 400 were Roman Catholics, 565 Jews, and nearly all the rest Protestants; total population of the territory, 52,158. The bailiwick of Bergedorf, which Lubeck formerly held in common with Hamburg, was by a treaty of Aug. 8, 1867, left to the sole possession of the latter. The city has a cathedral remarkable for its wood carvings and paintings by Memling, and the church of St. Mary, one of the finest pointed Gothic edifices in N. Germany, contains pictures by Holbein, Vandyke, and other great masters. Conspicuous among the other public buildings is the shipowners' guildhall, and particularly the town hall or Rathhaus, with the famous ancient hall of the Hansa, in which the deputies from 85 cities used to meet, and in the lower story of which the senate still assembles. The Holstein and Burg gates are also objects of architectural interest, as well as the hospital of the Holy Ghost, which is the principal of the many charitable institutions of the city.

The chief educational establishment is the gymnasium. The size of the ramparts, now converted into public walks, and the quaint architecture and rich decoration of many of the houses, bear witness to the former importance and pros-perity of the city, which it retains to some degree, the supreme court of the free cities of Germany being still held at Lubeck, and its commerce continuing to be of magnitude, notwithstanding the proximity to and the competition of Hamburg and Bremen. Still it has considerably declined compared with the times when the Hanse towns monopolized the traffic of half of Europe. The registered shipping in 1872 comprised 48 vessels, tonnage 11,892; of these, 24, with an aggregate tonnage of 6,006, were steamers. The entrances in 1872 were 2,457 vessels (steamers 776), tonnage 309,-218; clearances, 2,237 (steamers 772), tonnage 228,340. One third of the imports come by land and river from Hamburg; the remainder by sea, even large vessels, which formerly had to discharge at Travemunde, being now, in consequence of enlargements of the port, able to come to the city. The chief imports are cotton, silk goods, hardware, and other manufactures, colonial articles, dye stuffs, zinc, etc. The exports consist mainly of corn, cattle, wool, timber, iron, and fish.

The principal manufactures are tobacco, soap, paper, playing cards, linen and cotton goods, and iron. Lubeck possesses an exchange, a commercial school, and many large insurance companies. Many business transactions are carried on with Russia and Scandinavia, large steamers plying between Lubeck and Copenhagen, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. Lubeck has a republican form of government, administered by a senate of 14 life members, of whom 8 must be literary men (6 of them lawyers), and 5 of the other 6 merchants, and by 120 delegates elected for six years. The expenditures and receipts were estimated in the budget for 1873 at $520,000; the public debt in 1872 amounted to $5,400,000. - Lubeck was founded, near the site of a more ancient Slavic town of the same name which had been destroyed, in the first half of the 12th century, by Adolphus II., count of Holstein, and ceded by him in 1158 to Henry the Lion, who greatly increased the prosperity of the city, and gave it the celebrated code of laws known as das Lubische Recht. The emperor Frederick II. conferred upon it in 1226 the privileges of an imperial free city.

After that time, and especially after joining the Hanseatic league, Lubeck became a place of great commercial magnitude and political importance as the capital of the Hanse towns, and from the great enterprise of its citizens. During the thirty years' war, in the course of which a peace was concluded there between the emperor Ferdinand II. and Christian IV. of Denmark (1629), it lost its prestige, and during the wars of Napoleon it was subjected to many vicissitudes.

Market Place. Lubeck.

Market Place. Lubeck.