Mexico, a state of the republic of the same name, bounded N. by Hidalgo, E. by Tlaxcala and Puebla, S. E. by Morelos, S. by Guerrero, and W. by Michoacan; area, 9,598 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 650,663. Two great mountain chains traverse the state, and, with their branches, divide it into three picturesque and fertile valleys, the principal of which is that of Mexico, and the other two are Tlaxcala and Toluca. The highest summits are those of the south and southeast, among which are Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. The chief and only important riwr is the Lerma, which, rising in the lake of its own name, Hows N. W. into Michoacan and falls into Lake Chapala. The most remarkable feature in the hydrography of the state is its lakes: Chalco, Xochirailco, Tezcuco, Xaltocan, San Crist6bal, and Zumpango in the valley of Mexico, and Lerma in that of Toluca. The average elevation of the state is 7,500 ft. above the sea. Its climate is equal to the mildest, most equable, and most salubrious of the temperate zone; the mean annual temperature is 65° F., the thermometer never descending below 57°, while the maximum summer heat is 70°. There are really but two seasons, the rainy from June to October, and the dry during the remaining months.
The metals found here are gold, silver, lead, iron, and antimony; cinnabar and sulphur abound; some coal occurs; and lithographic stone and marbles of several varieties are plentiful. The soil is remarkably fertile, and the state, one of the most agricultural in the republic, produces maize, wheat, rye, barley, several kinds of beans, the sugar cane, plantain, and especially the maguey. Tropical fruits abound here, and all the fruits and vegetables of the temperate zones. The forest-clothed hills and mountains afford an abundance of timber of several varieties. The chief industries are mining, agriculture, the manufacture of woollens and cottons (the cassimeres and other fabrics of Temoscaltepec and Tenancin-go being of superior quality), and glass and earthenware, some of which is not inferior to that imported from Germany. Cattle rearing, once a vast source of wealth, lias materially dwindled of late years, the annual value of the stock not exceeding $3,000,000. The commerce is valued at $12,000,000 yearly. This state is traversed by the Mexico and Vera Cruz railway, and those of Tlalpan and Toluca, and by several lines of telegraph.
The state is divided into 16 districts, and the capital and chief town is Toluca. In 1874 there were 388 primary public schools, of which 336 were for males, and the total attendance was 22,120, about 3,000 of whom were females. Of the 51 private schools 34 were for males; the aggregate attendance was 2,529, and of these 1,027 were females. The only high school supported by the state government is the instituto literario, with 670 students, the annual outlay for which is $36,000.