Montecicili, Or Montecuccoli, Raimomdo, count, an Austrian general, born near Modena in 1608, died in Linz, Oct. 16, 1681. He entered the Austrian army in 1627, and distinguished himself in the thirty years' war. On Sept. 7, 1631, he was wounded and taken prisoner in the battle of Breitenfeld, and liberated in 1632. For his gallantry in the assault on Kaiserslau-tern, in July, 1635, he was promoted to a colonelcy. In 1639, while attempting to prevent the Swedes from crossing the Elbe at Melnik, in Bohemia, he was worsted and taken prisoner. On his release two years afteinvard he joined the imperial army in Silesia, defeated the enemy at Troppau, and took the town of Brieg. On the outbreak of war in Italy he went thither, and received from the duke of Modena the title of brigadier general and the command of his cavalry; but he soon returned to Austria, was appointed in 1644 lieutenant field marshal and a member of the aulic council of war, supported in 1645 the archduke Leopold in his expedition against Rakoczy of Transylvania, and was sent to oppose Turenne on the Rhine. The next year, in conjunction with Johann von Werth, he completely routed the Swedes in Silesia, and received the rank of general of cavalry.
Being in 1657 placed in command of the army sent by the emperor to protect John Casimir of Poland against the Transylvanians and the Swedes, he forced Rakoczy to make peace. Promoted to the rank of field marshal, he was sent the next year to relieve Denmark, rescued Copenhagen from the attacks of the Swedes, and expelled them from Jutland and the island of Fiinen. After the establishment of peace in the north by the treaty of Oliva (1660), he commanded the army sent against the Turks, whom he drove from Transylvania, and on Aug. 1, 1664, gained on the banks of the Raab the victory of St. Gott-hard, which for the time delivered Christian Europe from Turkish invasion. When in 1672 Louis XIV. threatened Holland, Montecuculi commanded the imperial army which took the field in behalf of the Dutch, and baffled the plans of Turenne, whom he worsted on several occasions. For a while superseded in the command by the elector of Brandenburg, he was soon recalled (1675), as the only general who could hold his ground in presence of the great French marshal.
On the death of Turenne ho drove the French army across the Rhine, and invaded Alsace; but his progress was stopped by the prince of Conde, who obliged him to raise the siege of Hagenau and recross the Rhine. After this campaign Montecuculi returned to Vienna and devoted his time to science, art, and literature. The dignity of a prince of the German empire was conferred on him by the emperor Leopold in 1679, and soon afterward the king of Naples gave him the duchy of Melfi. He lost his life by the fall of a beam. He left a personal memoir (translated into Latin under the title of Com-mentarii Bellici, fob, Vienna, 1718), containing disquisitions on the military art and an account of his campaigns against the Turks. Ilis writings were published in the original Italian by Ugo Foscolo (2 vols, fob, Milan, 1807-'8), and by J. Grassi (2 vols. 4to and 8vo, Turin, 1821).