Naxos, Or Naxia, an island of Greece, and the largest of the Cyclades, in the Archipelgo, 5 m. E. of Paros; length about 20 m., greatest breadth 14 m.; area, about 150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,508; of the eparchy of Naxos, which includes Paros and several smaller islands, 20,582, all members of the Greek church, except about 400 Roman Catholics. The surface is diversified and picturesque; the plains and valleys are remarkable for their fertility. In the centre of the island is the mountain anciently called Drius, now Zia or Dia, 3,300 ft. high, from which 22 islands and the Asiatic continent are visible. The vine, olives, oranges, iron, marble, etc, are produced, and cheese, honey, and wax are among the principal exports. The wine of Naxos, called Bacchus wine, was celebrated. Naxos formerly furnished the bulk of the emery used in trade, the annual production amounting to 2,000 tons. The island contains about 40 villages. Naxos, the capital, is on the W. coast; pop. about 5,000. The streets are narrow, and the former ducal palace is in ruins, but the white houses present a cheerful appearance.

It is the seat of a Greek bishop and a Roman Catholic archbishop, and has ten Greek and four Roman Catholic churches, a Lazarist, a Capuchin, and an Ursuline convent, and a custom house. - This island in antiquity was sometimes called Strongyle from its circular form, sometimes Dionysias from the prevalence there of the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), and frequently Dia in honor of Zeus. It was inhabited in early times chiefly by Ionians from Attica. It was conquered by Pisistratus, and in 490 B. C. by the Persians. After the battle of Salamis it regained its independence, but nine years later became a dependency of Athens, and after many vicissitudes of the Roman and then the Byzantine empire. In A. D. 1207 it became the seat of a duchy, comprising several other islands, established by the Venetian Marco Sanudo. In 1566 the island was taken by the Turks, and under Selim II. was ruled by a Jew, Joseph Nasi (the Prince).