Navy, a collective term for the vessels of war belonging to a nation. The sea-going vessels of Phoenicia and Carthage, of Greece and Rome, were flat-bottomed barges or galleys, unable to live in a gale; sea room in a squall was destruction to them; they crept along the coasts, casting anchor at night in some cove or creek. (See Galley.) To cross over from Greece to Italy, or from Africa to Sicily, was a dangerous operation. The ships were provided with but little canvas, and oars were relied upon to propel them sluggishly. The implements for offensive warfare were equally inefficient. Bows and arrows, javelins, clumsy ballistas and catapults, were the only arms that could be used at a distance. No serious harm could be done to an enemy at sea until the two fighting ships came into actual contact. Thus, there were but two modes of naval fighting possible: to manoeuvre so that the sharp, strong, iron-pointed prow of your own ship should be driven with full force against the enemy's broadside in order to run him down; or else to run on broadside to broadside, fasten the two ships together, and board the enemy at once.
After the first Punic war, which destroyed the naval superiority of the Carthaginians, there is not a single naval engagement in ancient history offering the slightest professional interest, and Roman dominion soon put an end to the possibility of further naval contests in the Mediterranean. - In the naval encounters between the Romans and Gauls described by Caesar, the former used galleys and the latter merely sail vessels, from which fact it would seem that in the seas about Great Britain sail vessels only were used at that time. The invasion of England by the Anglo-Saxons was made in sail vessels. In the time of Alfred galleys were introduced, the effect of which was to diminish the length and boldness of voyages, for the galleys could not venture out to sea, although they made excellent coast guards. After the Norman conquest sail vessels came more into use, and voyages again became bolder. But the real birthplace of our modern navies is the German ocean. About the time when the great mass of the Teutonic tribes of central Europe rose to trample down the decaying Roman empire and to regenerate western Europe, the Frisians, Saxons, Angles, Danes, and Northmen began to take to the sea.
Their vessels were firm, stout sea boats, with a prominent heel and sharp lines, relying mostly on sails alone, and not afraid to face a gale in the middle of that rough northern sea. It was with this class of vessels that the Northmen undertook their roving expeditions, extending to Constantinople on the one side and America on the other. The vessels in which the Northmen made their excursions were probably of no very large size, perhaps not exceeding 100 tons in any case, and carrying one or at the outside two masts, fore-and-aft rigged. For a long time both ship building and navigation appear to have remained stationary; during the whole of the middle ages vessels were small, and the bold spirit of the Northmen and the Frisians had passed away; whatever improvements were made were owing to Italians and Portuguese, who now became the boldest sailors. The Portuguese discovered the route by sea to India; two Italians in foreign service, Co-luinbus and Cabot, were the first since the times of Leif the Northman to cross the Atlantic. Long sea voyages now became a necessity, and they required large ships; at the same time the necessity of arming vessels of war, and even merchantmen, with heavy artillery, equally tended to increase size and tonnage.
The same causes which had produced standing armies on land, now produced standing navies afloat; and it is from this time only that we can properly speak of navies. The era of colonial enterprise which now opened for all seafaring nations, also saw the- formation of large fleets of war to protect the newly formed colonies and their trade; and a period followed richer in naval struggles and more fruitful to the development of naval armaments than any that preceded it.
Prow of a Galley.
Henry Grace de Dieu, from an old woodcut.
The foundation of the British navy was laid by Henry VII., who built the first ship, called " The Great Harry." His successor formed a regular standing fleet, the property of the state, the largest ship of which was called the Henry Grace de Dieu. This vessel, the largest ever built up to that time, carried 80 guns, partly on two regular flush gun decks, partly on additional platforms both forward and astern. She was provided with four masts; her tonnage is variously stated at from 1,000 to 1,500. The whole of the British fleet at the death of Henry VIII. consisted of about 50 sail, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,000, and manned by 8,000 sailors and marines. In 1578 it comprised 24 ships, of 10,395 tons, 954 guns, and 6,570 men. The Triumph, of 1,000 tons and 100 guns, was the largest vessel; next to her ranked the Elizabeth and the White Bear, each of 900 tons and 80 guns. The large ships of the period were clumsy contrivances, deep-waisted, that is to say, provided with towering forecastles and poops, which rendered them exceedingly top-heavy. The Mary Rose was sunk off Sheerness in 1588 while tacking, her lower ports being only 16 inches above the water.
The first English three-decker was the Sovereign of the Seas, afterward called the Royal Sovereign, built in 1637. She bore the character of the best man-of-war in the world until 1696, when she was accidentally burned at Chatham. She is the first vessel of whose armament we get something like an accurate account. She had three flush decks, a forecastle, a half deck, a quarter deck, and a round house; on her lower deck she carried 30 guns, 42- and 32-pounders; 30 on her middle deck, 18- and 9-pounders; on her upper deck 26 lighter guns, probably 6- and 3-pounders. Besides these, she carried 20 chase guns and 26 guns on her forecastle and half deck. But on her regular home establishment this armament was reduced to 100 guns, the full complement being evidently too much for her. As to the smaller vessels, our information is very scanty. In 1651 the navy was classed in six rates; but besides them there continued to exist numerous classes of unrated ships, such as shallops, hulks, and later bombs, sloops, lire ships, and yachts.
In 1677 we find a list of the whole English navy; according to which, the largest first rate three-decker carried 26 42-pdrs., 28 24-pdrs., 28 9-pdrs., 14 6-pdrs., and 4 3-pdrs.; and the smallest two-decker (fifth rate) carried 18 18-pdrs., 8 6-pdrs., and 4 4-pdrs., or 30 guns in all. The whole fleet consisted of 129 vessels. In 1714 we find 198 vessels; in 1727, 178; and in 1744, 128. Afterward, as the number of vessels increases, their size also gets larger, and the heaviness of the armament is augmented with the tonnage. The first English ship answering to our modern frigate was built by Sir Robert Dudley, as early as the end of the 16th century; but it was not till fully 80 years later that this class of ships, first used by the southern European nations, was generally adopted in the British navy. The particular fast-sailing qualities of frigates were little understood for some time in England. British ships were generally over-gunned, so that their lower ports were but 3 ft. from the water's edge, and could not be opened in a rough sea, and the sailing capacities of the vessels were also greatly impaired.
Both the Spaniards and the French allowed more tonnage in proportion to the number of guns; the consequence was that their ships could carry heavier calibre and more stores, had more buoyancy, and were better sailers. The English frigates of the first half of the 18th century carried as many as 44 guns, of 9,12, and a few of 18 lbs. calibre, with a tonnage of about 710. By 1780 frigates of 38 guns (mostly 18-pdrs.) and of 946 tons were built. The French frigates of the same epoch, with a similar armament, averaged 100 tons more. About the same time (the middle of the 18th century) the smaller men-of-war were more accurately classed in the modern way as corvettes, brigs, brigantines, and schooners. In 1779 a piece of ordnance was invented (probably by the British Gen. Melville) which changed to a great extent the armaments of most navies. It was a very short gun, with a large calibre, approaching in its shape a howitzer, but intended to throw solid shot, with small charges, at short ranges. These guns were first manufactured by the Carron iron company, in Scotland, and were hence called carronades.
The shot from this gun, useless at long ranges, had fearful effects upon timber at close quarters; from its reduced velocity (by the reduced charge), it made a larger hole, shattered the timber far more, and made numerous and more dangerous splinters. The comparative lightness of the guns, too, made it easy to find room for a few of them on the quarter deck and forecastle of vessels; and as early as 1781 there were 429 ships in the British navy provided with from six to ten carronades over and above their regular complement of guns. In reading the accounts of naval engagements during the French and American wars, it should be borne in mind that the British never include the carronades in the number of guns given as a ship's complement; so that, for instance, a British frigate, stated to be a 36-gun frigate, may in reality have carried 42 or more guns, including the carronades. The superior weight of metal which the carronades gave to the British broadsides, helped to decide many an action fought at close quarters during the war of the French revolution. But after all, carronades were merely a make-shift to increase the strength of the comparatively small-sized men-of-war of a century ago.
As soon as the size of the ships was increased for each rating, they were again cast aside, and are now superseded by other arms. At that period, in the construction of men-of-war, the French and Spaniards were decidedly ahead of the English. Their ships were larger and designed with far better lines than the British; their frigates especially were superior both in size and sailing qualities; and for many years the English frigates were copied from the French frigate Hebe, captured in 1782. In the same proportion as the vessels were lengthened, the high towering erections at the bow and stern, the forecastles, quarter decks, and poops, were reduced in height, the sailing qualities of the ships being increased thereby; so that gradually the comparatively elegant and swift-sailing lines of the present men-of-war came to be adopted. Instead of increasing the number of guns to these larger ships, the calibre was increased, and so were the weight and length of each gun, in order to admit of the use of full charges, and to secure the greatest point-blank range, so as to allow the fire to be opened at long distances.
The small calibres below 24 lbs. disappeared from the larger vessels, and the remaining calibres were simplified, so as to have no more than two calibres, or at the outside three, on board of any one vessel. In ships of the line, the lower deck, being the strongest, was armed with guns of the same calibre as the upper decks, but of greater length and weight, in order to have at least one tier of guns available for the greatest possible range. - About 1820 the French Gen. Paixhansmade an invention which has been of great importance in naval armaments. He constructed a gun of large calibre provided with a chamber at the breech for the insertion of the powder, and began to fire hollow shot, at low elevations, from these "shell guns " (canons dusters). Hitherto hollow shot had been fired against ships from howitzers in shore batteries only; though in Germany the practice of firing shell horizontally from short 24-pdr. and even 12-pdr. guns had been long in use against fortifications. The destructive effects of shell against the wooden sides of vessels were well known to Napoleon, who at Boulogne armed most of his gunboats for the expedition to England with howitzers, and laid it down as a rule that ships must be attacked with projectiles which will hurst after hitting.
Now. Paixhans's shell guns gave the means of arming ships with cannon which, by throwing their shells as nearly as possible horizontally! could be used at sea, ship against ship, with nearly the same probability of hitting as the old round-shot trims. The new gun was soon introduced into all navies, and, after undergoing various improvements, for some time constituted an essential portion of the armament of all large men-of-war. - The first attempts were made to apply steam to the pro-pulsion of ships of war shortly after it had been applied by Fulton to that of commercial vessels. The progress from the river steamer to the coasting steamer, and gradually to the ocean steamer, was slow; in the same ratio was the progress of war steamers retarded. As long as paddle boats were the only steamers in existence, this was justifiable. The paddles and part of the engine were exposed to the enemy's shot, and could be disabled by a single lucky hit: they took up the best portion of the broadside room of the vessel; and the weight of engine, paddles, and coal so much reduced the capacity of the ship, that a heavy armament of numerous long guns was entirely out of the question.
A paddle steamer, therefore, could never be a ship of the line; but its superior speed might permit it to compete with frigates, which are expected to hover on the flanks of an enemy, to collect the fruits of a victory, or to cover a retreat. Now a frigate has just the size and armament which enable it to go fearlessly on any independent roving errand, while its superior sailing qualities enable it to withdraw in time from an unequal contest. The sailing qualities of any frigate were far outstripped by the steamer; but without a good armament the steamer could not fulfil its mission. Regular broadside fighting was out of the question; the number of guns must, for want of space, be always inferior to that of a sailing frigate.
The Sovereign of the Seas.
The dimnished number of guns on board a steam frigate was counterbalanced by their weight of metal and calibre. Originally these puns were intended to throw shells only, but now ritled guns have nearly superseded smooth-bores, and in a short time there will be no smoothbores atloat in the navies of the great powers Moreover, the reduced number of guns admits of traversing platforms and railways being laid down on the deck, by means of which all or most of the guns can be brought to bear in almost any direction; a provision by which the strength of a steam frigate for an attack is nearly doubled, and a 20-gun steam frigate can bring at least as many guns into action as could a 40-gun sailing frigate with but 18 working guns for each single broadside. Thus the large modern steam frigate is a most formidable ship; the superior calibre and range of her guns, added to her velocity, enable her to cripple an opponent at a distance where no effective return of lire would have been possible to the sailing vessel; while the weight of her metal comes in with crushing power when it is to her advantage finally to force the fighting.
For smaller vessels, corvettes, advice boats, and other light craft, not counting in a naval battle, but very useful throughout a campaign, steam was at once found of great advantage, and there were many such paddle boats constructed in most navies. It was the same with transport ships. Where landings were intended, steamers not only reduced the length of passage to a minimum, but permitted one to calculate to a moral certainty the time of arrival at any given place. The transport of bodies of troops was now made a matter of great simplicity, especially as every naval country had a large fleet of commercial steamers to fall back upon for transport vessels in case of necessity. It was on these considerations that the prince de Joinville, in his well known pamphlet, ventured to maintain that steam had altered the condition of naval warfare to such an extent as to render an invasion of England by Franco no longer an impossibility. Still, so long as the ships used for decisive action, the ships of the line, remained exclusively sailing vessels, the introduction of steam could work hut little change in the conditions under which great naval battles were fought.
The invention of the screw propeller was destined to supply the means of revolutionizing naval warfare entirely, and to transform all war fleets into steam fleets. It was fully 13 years after the invention of the screw before the first step in this direction was made. Finally in 1849 the French engineer Dupuy-Delome constructed the first screw line-of-bat-tle ship, the Napoléon, of 100 guns and 600 horse power. This ship was not intended to depend upon steam only; unlike the paddles, the screw allowed a ship to retain all the lines and rigging of a sailing vessel, and to be moved at will by steam alone, by sails alone, or by both combined. She could therefore always save her coal for emergencies by having recourse to her sails, and was thus far less dependent upon the proximity of coaling stations than the old paddle-wheel steamer. On this account, and because her steam power was too weak to give her the full speed of a paddle steamer, the Napoleon and other vessels of this class were called auxiliary steam vessels; since then, however, ships of war of the largest class have been constructed which have steam [tower enough to give them all the speed of which the screw propeller is capable.
The success of the Napoleon soon caused screw ships of war to be built both in France and England. The Russian war gave a new impulse to this radical change in naval construction; and when it was found that all strong-built ships of war could, without too much difficulty, be fitted with a screw and engines, the transformation of all navies into steam fleets became only a matter of time. No large naval power now thinks of constructing sailing vessels; all ships newly laid down are screw steamers, except the few paddle steamers which for certain purposes are still required. - The Crimean war called into existence two new naval constructions. The first of these is the steam gun boat or mortar boat, originally constructed by the English for the contemplated attack on Cron-stadt; it is a small vessel drawing from 4 to 7 ft. of water, and armed with one or two heavy long-range guns or a heavy mortar; the former to be used in shallow and intricate waters generally, the latter in the bombardment from a long distance of fortified naval arsenals. The gun boats, when acting in concert with coast batteries, will strengthen the defence, and will also provide naval warfare with those light skirmishers which were hitherto wanting to it.
The second innovation is the iron-sided, shot-proof floating batteries, first constructed by the French, for the attack of coast defences. The navies of the world are at present in an experimental state. For defence of harbors and coasts iron-clad ships are taking the place of wooden unar-mored ships, and indeed the French and British and some other European nations have sent to sea iron-clad cruisers. Several American monitors also have been tested at sea, and some contend that they are suitable for cruising; but the success of ironclads has not been so far fully demonstrated. For an account of the history of such vessels, and of rifled naval guns, see Iron-Clad Ships. - The vessels of war of which modern navies are composed are classed in various ratings, from first to sixth rates. The classification before the introduction of steam and iron-clad ships was the following: 1. Ships of the line were the largest men-of-war afloat, destined to form the line of battle in a general action, and to decide the struggle by the weight of metal thrown into the enemy's ships. They were either three-deckers or two-deckers; that is to say, they had either three or two covered decks armed with guns. These decks were called the lower, middle, and main or upper deck.
The upper deck, which was formerly covered in at the quarter deck and forecastle only, was afterward covered in by a continuous open deck from stem to stern. This open deck, which was called the quarter deck and forecastle, also carried artillery, mostly carronades; so that in reality a two-decker carried three, and a three-decker four tiers of guns. The heaviest guns were of course placed on the lower deck; and the guns became lighter in proportion as the batteries were more elevated above the water. The calibre being generally the same, lightness was obtained by reducing the weight of the guns, in consequence of which those on the upper decks could only stand reduced charges, which implied that they could be used only at shorter ranges. The only exception to this rule was in the case of chase guns, which were placed at the bow and stern of a ship, and which, even if placed on the forecastle or quarter deck, were still as long and heavy as possible, being required to act at the longest ranges practicable. Thus, the bow and stern guns of English ships of the line were composed either of 8- or 10-inch shell guns, or of 56-pdr. (bore 7.7 in.) or 68-pdr. (bore 8.13 in.) solid-shot guns, one of which was placed on the forecastle on a traversing platform.
There were in the English navy generally six stern and five bow guns to a first rate; the remaining armament of such a ship was as follows:
U. S. Screw Ship of War Wabash (first rate).
8-null shell puns
8-inch shell guns
Forecastle and quarter deck
The armament of the smaller ratings of vessels of the- line was arranged upon the same principle. For the sake of comparison, we also give that of a French first rate, viz.: lower deck, 32 long 30-lb. guns; middle deck, 4 80-lb. shell guns, and 30 short 30-lb. guns; upper deck, 34 30-lb. shell guns; forecastle and quarter deck, 4 30-lb. shell guns, and 16 30-lb. carronades; in all, 120 guns. The French 80-lb. shell gun has a larger bore than the 8-inch English gun by 0'8 inch; the 30-lb. shell gun and the 30-lb. gun have a slightly larger bore than the English 32-pdr., so that the advantage of weight of metal would He with the French. The smallest ship of the line carried 72 guns; the largest frigate carried 61. 2. A frigate is a ship with only one covered deck carrying guns, and another open deck above it (forecastle and quarter deck), which is equally provided with guns. The armament, in the English service, was generally of 30 guns (either all shell guns or part shell guns and long 32-pdrs.) on the gun deck, and 30 short.32-pdrs. on the forecastle and quarter dock, with a heavy pivot gun on a traversing platform at the bow.
Frigates being mostly sent on detached service, where they were always likely to become engaged single-handed against hostile frigates sent on the same errand, it was a great point with most naval nations to make them as large and powerful as possible. In no class of vessels is the increase in size so remarkable as in this. The United States, requiring a cheap navy strong enough to enforce respect, were the first to see the great advantage to be drawn from a fleet of large frigates, each of them superior to any frigate which other nations could bring against it. The superiority of the American ship builders in producing swift vessels was also taken advantage of, and the last war against England (1812-15) showed in many well contested engagements what formidable antagonists these American frigates were. They were considered models of this class of vessels. The names frigate and corvette or sloop have been retained in the navies of the present day. 3. The next class of men-of-war was called corvettes. They had but one tier of guns, placed on an open deck; but the larger class was provided with a forecastle and quarter deck (not connected however by a continuous deck amidships), where they carried a few guns more.
Such corvettes, therefore, almost corresponded to what a frigate was 100 years ago, before the two elevated extremities of the vessel were connected by a flush deck. These corvettes were strong enough to carry the same calibre of guns as the larger vessels. They also carried three masts, all square-rigged. Corvettes are also called sloops of war. 4. Of smaller vessels, brigs and schooners carried from 20 guns to 6. They had but two masts, square-rigged in brigs, fore-and-aft rigged in schooners. The calibre of their guns was necessarily smaller than that of the larger ships, and did not generally exceed 18- or 24-pdrs., going down as low as 12- and 9-pdrs. Vessels of this small power of offence could not be sent where serious resistance was anticipated. In European waters they have been superseded by small steamers, and they could have been of actual service only on such coasts as those of South America, China, etc, where they had to meet powerless antagonists, and where they merely served to represent the flag of a powerful naval nation. - During the 17th century the noted naval commanders distinguished themselves as soldiers as well as sailors, and in many instances (notably that of Admiral Blake) it is certain that commanders of fleets and squadrons had no naval experience.
The result was, that in ships of war there were two departments, the sailing and the fighting departments, the former in charge of the navigation of the ship, and the latter of its discipline and fighting. This arrangement did not last long, as it was soon seen that a ship more than any other thing should have but one head, responsible for everything. Therefore the commander of a ship of war is now responsible for its navigation as well as for its discipline and the state of its war material, and in fact is the only person on board to whom the higher authority looks for the proper care of the public property and the behavior of the ship in action. The grades of officers are nearly the same in all navies of the present day. Admirals, vice admirals, rear admirals, and commodores in general command fleets and squadrons and navy yards. Captains command large ships, and commanders smaller ones. Lieutenant commanders and lieutenants are the immediate assistants and subordinates of the ship commanders. Masters come next below lieutenants, and are equivalent to second lieutenants; after them come ensigns. Midshipmen are aspirants for the higher grades, and are usually educated at government naval schools before they are sent to sea in cruisers. The preceding are all line officers.
Chaplains, paymasters, surgeons, and engineers are attached to all navies, and have rank assimilated to the grades given above, dependent upon length of service. These are staff officers. In some foreign navies each of the three grades of admirals is subdivided into three other grades, making nine in all, designated by the colors of their flags, which are red, white, or blue. Thus there may be an admiral of the white, or of the red, or of the blue, etc. The admiral's ship is recognized by his flag, which is square. In the United States navy its color is blue. Captains and other commanders of ships fly a pennant. Gunners, boatswains, quartermasters, cockswains, carpenters, sailmakers, machinists, armorers, etc, are called warrant or petty officers according to the style of their appointments, and are not in general in the line of promotion. Seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and firemen are the privates, and do the work of navigating the ship, firing the engines and handling the guns. A war ship's company must have in it numerous persons whose duties are exceedingly various. Thus, there are secretaries, clerks, cooks for the officers, cooks for the men, nurses, coopers, tailors, bakers, stewards, musicians, painters, etc., besides the assistants to these functionaries, and servants.
A guard of marines is attached to every ship of war, the members of which are armed as infantry and do sentinel's duty. Their officers have the same grades as those of the army, and are assimilated in rank to those of the line of the navy. Their grades, however, are not dependent upon length of service. - The origin of the navy of the United States may be said to date from Oct. 13, 1775, when congress authorized the equipment of two cruisers mounting respectively 10 and 14 guns. Before the end of that year, 15 more vessels, of from 20 to 36 guns, were authorized. These vessels were built in the colonies of New England, and in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. On Dec. 22, 1775, congress appointed a corps of naval officers, of whom Esek Hopkins was commander-in-chief, and John Paul Jones was a lieutenant. The affairs of the navy were at this time intrusted to the management of a "marine committee." In October, 1776, the navy consisted of 26 vessels, mounting 536 guns, and its services throughout the revolutionary war were most important. In 1778 several vessels of considerable force were built or purchased for the navy; among these was the celebrated Alliance, a frigate of 32 guns.
The first vessel of war taken by an American cruiser in battle was the Edward, which was captured by the Lexington, Capt. John Barry, on April 17, 1777. On March 27, 1794, congress authorized the construction of six frigates, and it was fortunately decided that three of them should be of a very heavy class; the Constitution was one of these ships. This step laid the foundation of the present navy, the vessels of the revolution having been disposed of at the end of that contest, in 1783. Large whaleboats were fitted out by both sides during the war of the revolution, which were effective gunboats. They were about 40 ft. long, propelled by oars and sails, and carried two guns and a supply of small arms. Their crew numbered between 40 and 50 men. They went far out to sea, and severe fights took place between the boats of the rebels and loyalists. In 1798 the navy department was formally created, and Benjamin Stoddart appointed the first secretary. At this time, urged by the depredations of France upon our commerce, and warned by the conduct of the Barbary powers, congress authorized a considerable increase of the navy, which the president was empowered to use for defence against the French. In the quasi war with France which resulted, our naval successes were marked.
Upon the accession to office of Mr. Jefferson in 1801, the navy was reduced. In the same year war was declared by Tripoli against the United States, and continued till 1805. The naval achievements of these four years gave a high character to the American service. In 1803 the "gunboat system" was inaugurated. In 1806 and 1807 the number of gunboats was rapidly increased, congress having authorized the construction of 257 of these vessels; but they were afterward found to be expensive and inefficient, and the system was soon abandoned.
U. S. Sailing Frigate Constitution.
During the war of 1812 the navy obtained a vast increase of reputation. The superior force of the frigates of 1794 was evinced in their almost uniform success in action with an enemy hitherto deemed invincible on the ocean. The policv of maintaining an efficient navy was now considered settled; and although, compared with the navies of other nations, that of the Tinted States is very small, the aim has always been to keep pace with the improvements of the day. and to have none but the most efficient ships of their class in the service. The navy of the United States still possesses wooden sailing vessels, but it is not probable that any of them will ever go to sea again as cruisers, or in any other capacity, except as practice ships or on some peaceful service. The sailing navy may be considered as out of existence. In the navy of the United States the wooden war steamers were on Jan. 1, 1874, as follows:
The wooden sailing vessels at the same date were as follows:
There were also 48 iron-clad vessels and 26 tugs and other small vessels. Admiral Porter in his annual report, Nov. 6, 1874, says that though the ironclads fulfilled in the late civil war the specific purpose for which they were built, none of them can now compete with recently constructed foreign monitors; 20 of them have been condemned, and only 17 are serviceable. Of the wooden ships only 31 can properly be called vessels of war, and a thorough rebuilding of the navy is recommended, lly of monitors for coast defence. The personnel of the navy, and its annual pay when at sea, were on Jan. 1, 1874, as follows: 1 admiral, $13,000; 1 vice admiral, $9,000; 11 rear admirals, $(5,000; 25 commodores, x5,000; 50 captains, $4,500; 90 commanders, $3,500; 132 lieutenant commanders, &2.800 to $3 000; 236 lieutenants, $2,400 to §2,600; 100 masters, $1,800 to 35 ensigns, $1,200 to $1,400 103 midshipmen, $1,000; and 235 cadet midshipmen at the naval school, $500 There were 150 medical officers of the various grades 131 paymasters, 211 engineers, 42 cadet engineers, 22 chaplains, 12 professors of mathematics, 17 naval constructors and assistants, anil 7 civil engineers. The warrant officers were 58 boatswains, 64 gunners, 46 carpenters, 40 sailmakers, and 58 masters' mates.
On the retired list there were 280 commissioned and warrant officers. In the marine corps there were 92 officers of all grades from brigadier general to second lieutenant on the active list, and 10 commissioned officers on the retired list. The navy is governed under the president by the secretary of the navy. In his department are eight bureaus which have charge of all the details of administration of the service. Each of these has for its head an officer of the navy of high rank, who serves for four years.
* Three iron vessels.