A K E. Province Of Brazil, bounded N. by Rio Grande do Norte, E. by the Atlantic, S. by Pernambuco, and "W. by Ceara; area, 31,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1871 (estimated), 280,000. The coast is low, but inland the surface is traversed by several mountain ranges, the principal of which are the serras de Bor-borema and de Teixara. In the former rises the Rio Parahyba do Norte, which empties into the Atlantic after an E. N. E. course of 300 m. The Mamanguape, emptying 18 m. further N., is the only other considerable river. The climate inland is hot, but is considered healthful. Much of the country is fit only for pasturage, and many cattle are raised. The fertile tracts are partly covered with dense forests and partly cultivated. Cotton, sugar, and tobacco are raised to some extent. During the decade ending in 1873, the yearly average export of cotton was 196,568 lbs.; of sugar, 185,744 lbs. Gums, resin, and timber are largely exported. In 1865 an English company was organized to work the gold mines in the interior. In 1873 there were in the province 126 primary and grammar schools, of which 33 were for females with an aggregate attendance of 991, and 93 for males with 2,695 pupils; and there is a lyceum in Parahyba, and colleges in Mamanguape, Area, and Pombal.
A City, capital of the province, on the right bank of the river Parahyba do Norte, 10 m. from the sea, and 65 m. N, of Pernambuco; pop. about 14,-000. It is divided into an old and a new town, and has good streets and well built houses. The climate is salubrious. The port is good, but vessels of more than 350 tons seldom go up to the town. There is a large coasting trade, and the steamers of nearly all the Brazilian lines stop here on the trips between Rio de Janeiro and Belem. The principal exports are cotton, sugar, fish, hides, rum, tafia, coffee, and cacao. A railway to.extend 60 m. inland was to be begun in 1875.