Fayette, the name of 11 counties in the United States. I. A S. W. county of Pennsylvania, bordering on Maryland and West Virginia, and bounded W. by the Monongahela river; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 43,284. There are two mountain ridges: one called Laurel hill, stretching along the E. boundary, and the other known as Chestnut ridge, a branch of the Alleghanies, traversing the central part. The rest of the surface is mostly undulating. The soil is fertile in the N. W. part, but elsewhere is better adapted to pasturage than to tillage. Iron and bituminous coal are abundant. It is intersected by the national road, and accessible by steamboats on the Monongahela. The Pittsburgh and Con-nellsville railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 302,53(5 bushels of wheat, 22,768 of rye, 824,268 of Indian corn, 633,897 of oats, 79,665 of potatoes, 35,725 tons of hay, 691,623 lbs. of butter, and 287,752 of wool. There were 8,318 horses, 8,404 milch cows, 15,799 other cattle, 65,261 sheep, and 15,852 swine; 20 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of cars, 1 of cement, 4 of bricks, 13 of clothing, 7 of coke, 13 of barrels and casks, 4 of window glass, 9 of iron and products of the same, 3 of machinery, 12 of saddlery and harness, 4 of woollen goods, 1 ship building and repairing establishment, 3 planing mills, 13 saw mills, 7 distilleries, 13 tanneries, 4 currying establishments, and 21 flour mills.
II. A S. central county of West Virginia, bounded N. by the Gauley river, and N. E. by Meadow river; area, 770 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,647, of whom 118 were colored. It has a mountainous surface, with several considerable elevations, the highest of which are Gauley and Sewell mountains. Near the Kanawha or New river, which intersects the county, is a remarkable cliff, 1,000 ft. high, called Marshall's pillar. The scenery of the county is exceedingly picturesque; the soil is generally good, and among the highlands particularly there are many open tracts of remarkable fertility. Iron ore is the principal mineral. The chief productions in 1870 were 13,317 bushels of wheat, 123,220 of Indian corn, 41,991 of oats, 72,188 lbs. of butter, 16,331 of wool, and 188,165 of tobacco. There were 1,317 horses, 2,267 milch cows, 3,036 other cattle, 8,709 sheep, and 6,892 swine. Capital, Fayetteville.
III. A W. county of Georgia, bounded S. and E. by Flint river; area, 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,983, of whom 1,121 were colored. The surface is mostly level, and the soil, formed by the disintegration of primary rocks, is unproductive. Granite and iron are the principal minerals. The Atlanta and West Point and the Savannah, Griffin, and North Alabama railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 25,646 bushels of wheat, 104,486 of Indian corn, 11,916 of oats, and 2,951 bales of cotton. There were 3,587 cattle, 2,241 sheep, and 5,779 swine. Capital, Fayetteville.
IV. A N. W. county of Alabama; area, about 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,136, of whom 1,077 were colored. It has a moderately uneven surface, drained by numerous streams, and a productive soil. The chief productions in 1870 were 14,266 bushels of wheat, 201,228 of Indian corn, 13,283 of oats, 27,702 of sweet potatoes, 13,194 lbs. of wool, 97,350 of butter, and 1,909 bales of cotton. There were 1,450 horses, 2,534 milch cows, 5,107 other cattle, 6,354 sheep, and 10,983 swine. Capital. Fay-ette Court House.
V. A S. E. county of Texas, intersected by the Colorado river, which is navigable during half the year to this point; area, 1,025 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,863, of whom 5,901 were colored. The surface is undulating, and the soil, consisting of a black sandy loam, is highly productive. Coal is the most important mineral production. The chief productions in 1870 were 459,392 bushels of Indian corn, 34,206 of sweet potatoes, 144,196 lbs. of butter, 16,280 of wool, and 10,653 bales of cotton. There were 6,650 horses, 10,836 milch cows, 44,5.93 other cattle, 10,006 sheep, and 17,293 swine; 12 sawmills and 4 manufactories of saddlery and harness. Capital, La Grange.
VI. A S. W. county of Tennessee, bordering on Mississippi, and watered by Loo-sahatchie and Wolf rivers; area, about 550.sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,145, of whom 16,987 were colored. It has a fertile, well cultivated soil. It is traversed by the Memphis and Charleston, and its Somerville branch, and the Memphis and Louisville railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 11,786 bushels of wheat, 627,271 of Indian corn, 26,077 of sweet potatoes, and 20,131 bales of cotton. There were 2,839 horses, 4,073 mules and asses, 4,534 milch cows, 5,277 other cattle, 3,828 sheep, and 30,-762 swine; 1 saw mill and 4 flour mills, and 5 manufactories of carriages and wagons. Capital, Somerville.
VII. A central county of Kentucky, bounded S. by Kentucky river, and drained by some of its affluents; area, about 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,656, of whom 12,-513 were colored. It has a rolling surface, and a fertile and well tilled soil, underlying which is an excellent species of building stone called blue or Trenton limestone. The Kentucky Central and the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 76,362 bushels of wheat, 42,628 of rye, 1,117,190 of Indian corn, 176,276 of oats, 25,267 of barley, 49,432 of potatoes, 4,399 tons of hay, 157,742 lbs. of butter, and 28,421 of wool. There were 5,522 horses, 2,354 mules and asses, 3,753 milch cows, 12,501 other cattle, 7,477 sheep, and 20,676 swine; 4 manufactories of agricultural implements, 8 of bagging, 3 of boots and shoes, 20 of carriages and wagons, 3 of confectionery, 1 of cotton goods, 2 of furniture, 1 of gas, 1 of malt, 5 of saddlery and harness, 5 of tin, cop-per, and sheet-iron ware, 2 planing mills, 8 distilleries, and 7 flour mills.
VIII. A S. W. county of Ohio; area, 414 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,170. It has a level or undulating surface, and a fertile soil, consisting of deep black loam. It is intersected by the Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 160,510 bushels of wheat, 2,055,926 of Indian corn, 66,841 of oats, 50,929 of potatoes, 12,015 tens of hay, 361,725 lbs. of butter, and 154,739 of wool. There were 7,235 horses, 4,889 milch cows, 12,277 other cattle, 34,394 sheep, and 51,955 swine; 2 manufactories of boots and shoes, 10 of bricks, 7 of carriages and wagons, 5 of saddlery and harness, 1 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 1 of woollen goods, 2 flour mills, and 4 saw mills. Capital, Washington.
IX. A S. E. county of Indiana; area, about 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,476. The surface is level or undulating, and the soil fertile. Limestone is the principal rock. The Fort Wayne, Muneie, and Cincinnati, the Cincinnati and Indianapolis Junction, the White Water Valley, and the Columbus, Shelby, and Cambridge City branch of the Jeffersonville, Madison, and Indianapolis railroads intersect it. The chief productions in 1870 were 271,150 bushels of wheat, 035,454 of Indian corn, 56,348 of oats, 20,118 of potatoes, 5,524 tons of hay, 93,874 lbs. of butter, and 31,208 of wool. There were 3,001 horses, 2,031 milch cows, 5,167 other cattle, 8,105 sheep, and 20,879 swine; 2 manufactories of boots and shoes, 11 of carriages and wagons, 3 of furniture, 1 of iron castings, 1 of machinery, 1 of printing paper, 7 of saddlery and harness, 1 of woollen goods, 4 flour mills, and 3 saw mills. Capital, Connersville.
X. A S. central county of Illinois, intersected by Kaskaskia river; area, 640 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,038. The surface is level, and occupied by alternate tracts of fertile prairie and good timber land. A number of small streams supply it with water power. The Illinois Central and the St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute, and Indianapolis railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 351,310 bushels of wheat, 902,525 of Indian corn, 497,-395 of oats, 73,845 of potatoes, 20,844 tons of hay, 393,710 lbs. of butter, 54,440 of wool, and 38,155 of tobacco. There were 8,898 horses, 6,201 milch cows, 7,928 other cattle, 21,234 sheep, and 23,817 swine; 11 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 10 flour mills, and 20 saw mills. Capital, Vandalia.
XI. A N. E. county of Iowa; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,973. It is drained by the head branches of Turkey river, is well supplied with water power, and has a healthy climate. The surface is undulating, and occupied partly by fertile prairies and partly by forests. The chief productions in 1870 were 478,538 bushels of wheat, 448,028 of Indian corn, 395,075 of oats, 29,553 of barley, 58,052 of potatoes, 27,327 tons of hay, 454,808 lbs. of butter, and 38,290 of wool. There were 4,901 horses, 5.527 milch cows, 7,040 other cattle, 11,771 sheep, and 14,160 swine; 4 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 2 of barrels and casks, 5 of saddlery and harness, 1 brewery, 10 flour mills, and 13 saw mills. Capital, West Union.