Gottingen {Got! ting-en), a town in the former kingdom of Hanover, lies 538 feet above sea-level in the Leine's wide valley, encircled by gentle hills - the highest, the Hainberg (1246 feet). By rail it is 67 miles S. of Hanover, and 36 NE. of Cassel. The ramparts, long since outgroAvn, and now planted with lindens, form a charming promenade ; but architecturally Gottingen has nothing much to boast of - a quaint rathhaus, a statue of William IV., and a few antique buildings, one of which, the Jacobikirche, has a steeple 320 feet high. The celebrated university was founded 1734-37 by Baron Munch-hausen, under the auspices of George II., Elector of Hanover and king of England, and now has 120 professors and more than 800 students. Connected with it are the library (500,000 vols, and 5000 MSS.), museum, botanic garden, observatory, laboratory, hospital, etc, as also the Royal Society (1750). Coleridge, Beddoes, Pusey, Lever, Longfellow, Motley, Ticknor, and Bancroft studied at Gottingen, whose native alumni include many of Germany's most famous sons, among them Prince Bismarck, in whose honour a tower was built in 1894. The 'Gottinger Dichterbund' was a small poet band (Voss, the two Stolbergs, Klopstock, Burger, etc.); by the 'Gottinger Sieben' are meant the seven professors (Albrecht, Dahlmann, Ewald, Gervinus, the two Grimms, and Weber) who for their liberal tendencies were in 1837 expelled by King Ernest Augustus. The book-trade is of more importance than the manufactures - woollens, sugar, chemicals, etc. Pop. (1875) 17,057; (1890) 23,689 ; (1900) 30,234.