Southwell (locally Suth'l; soft th), a city of Nottinghamshire, on the ancient Ermine Street, 7 miles W. by S. of Newark and 12 NE. of Nottingham. A church was founded here by Paulinus about 630; but the stately cruciform minster, which with its three towers resembles York on a smaller scale, is wholly of post-Conquest date, comprising Norman nave and transepts (1110), Early English choir (1250), and Early Decorated chapter-house (1300). It measures 306 feet by 123 across the transepts, and the lantern tower is 105 feet high. A collegiate church until 1841, it became in 1884 the cathedral of a new diocese including the counties of Notts and Derbyshire, and taken from Lincoln and Lichfield; in 1888 it was reopened after restoration. Its eagle lectern originally belonged to Newstead priory, having been fished out of the lake there about 1750. In the old ' Saracen's Head ' Charles I. surrendered to the Scots commissioners (1646); Byron's mother occupied Burgage Manor House (1804-7); and there are picturesque ruins of the palace of the Archbishops of York (c. 1360; much altered and enlarged by Wolsey). The collegiate grammar-school was refounded in Henry VIII.'s time; and there are a literary institute and free library. Pop. (1851) 3516; (1881) 2866; (1901) 3161. See works by Rastall (1787, 1801), Shilton (1818), Dimock (1884), Livett (1883), and Leach (1890).