The glass plate, together with the paper on it, is now placed in a darkened, not too warm room, and dried spontaneously; after 6-12 hours it will be dried. This may be ascertained by touching the back of the sheet, and by the paper easily stripping off.

After stripping, the paper shows a beautiful high gloss; it is now ready for copying, and must, of course, be kept in the dark. The sensitised paper should be used up within 24 hours, because if it is kept for a longer time it is more difficult to work. In the stripped state the paper should be kept in a not too dry place, for if it is too dry, or even brittle, no sharp copies are to be obtained with it since it does not join closely to the negative. Besides, it is important to preserve in the paper a certain degree of flexibility, because it will then be possible to open one half of the printing frame in order to control the progress of the printing process, without fear of obtaining a double print. Should it, however, occur that the paper is too brittle, it may be placed between slightly moistened blotting-paper, but care must be taken that the transfer paper does not become too damp.

In printing, it is not necessary to use a photometer, since it is possible to watch the progress by opening one side of the back of the frame, provided that the paper is sufficiently smooth: The print should have a brown tone, and appear in visible relief from the ground. Over-printing is very injurious, because the lines and points of the image become thereby broader, and the development of the copy becomes difficult. If, however, it is underprinted, the colour doe3 not adhere to the image in development, or, at least, it adheres only to the vigorous parts of the print.

Care should also be taken that the backs in the printing frame are not damp, because this is obnoxious to the sharpness of the print. Sometimes it will happen, especially in the case of copies from densely-drawn originals/and in the case of copper engravings, that certain parts of the negative will print too quickly; parts of this kind are varnished on the back with carmine, as it is usually done in the case of negatives with half-tones.

The inking of the transfer may be carried on in different manners, but in all cases it is essential to lay on a light colour-tone evenly over the whole of the copy. This may be done by means of a sponge or a rag, as well as with a velvet roller; the main point is always the result. The manipulations are as follows: - The smooth face of a lithographic stone is, by means of an ordinary lithographic leather roller, inked' up with good transfer ink, and the velvet roller, which perhaps serves the purpose best, is carefully charged with a thin coating of the ink; then the copy, which has been placed on an even, smooth surface, is inked, up with the velvet roller until it is evenly covered with a middle grey tone. The vigorous parts of the image should still be visible through the colour, otherwise too much ink has been applied.

When the transfer is successfully inked up, it is placed in clean cold water, but care should be taken that no air-bubbles adhere to the copy in the water, and that the back of the paper remains completely covered with the water. After 10-15 minutes the transfer is removed, the water is allowed to drain, the copy is laid once more with its back on the smooth plate, and the water is squeezed out from the film side by means of fine tissue paper, which is done best by rolling over it with an old, clean lithographic roller, avoiding, however, carefully the formation of wrinkles, because, otherwise, the film will probably be damaged. The moistened transfer is now once more inked up with the velvet roller charged with colour. If, after some rolling, the image comes out quite distinctly, the paper, at the same time, being clear of the yellow colour produced by the bichromate bath, it is only necessary to wash off with a clean, very fine, and soft sponge moistened with water the colour which still adheres to the unexposed parts of the impression.

If, however, the transfer, after being inked up, appears still yellow, it must be placed, before the application of the sponge, once more in the water, and the inking up with the velvet roller must be repeated.

The ready developed transfers are placed between dry, clean, and perfectly smooth blotting paper, and by gentle pressure freed from the still adhering water. Then they are fastened by means of drawing pins on a board, and dried spontaneously on a slightly warmed place free from dust.

The dry copy is placed between damp blotting paper. In the case of grained or stippled impressions, tissue paper must be used instead of the ordinary blotting-paper.

In pulling through the press for the first time, only a slight pressure should be applied, it being increased at each stroke. As usually, the transfer is several times wetted with water. After the last pulling through, the transfer is removed without again being wetted; if there is any difficulty in doing so, the stone may be taken out of the press, and placed for a short time in a cold room, or the transfer may be dried spontaneously. In both cases the removing of the transfer is facilitated..

The "rubbing-in" or intensifying of the image on the stone is done as usual, but in the case of very fine drawings, grained or stippled images, a very slow procedure will be necessary. The sponge which is used in intensifying should contain only a small quantity of the colour.

The etching may be done in the or-dinary manner with slightly acid gum-water; in the case of fine drawings, however, it is recommended to apply a " sharp or high-etching " bath, it offering also otherwise some advantages.

For this purpose the transfer is dusted in at first with rosin powder, then with talc powder, and the excessive powder is carefully removed with a pad of cotton. Then two narrow, long strips of wood, about 1/8 in. thick, are placed on the two longitudinal edges of the stone, clear of the impression, and fastened at one end in any convenient way. Then a wooden lath, about 3 in. wide, 1 1/8 in. thick, and a little longer than the stone is wide, is taken, covered with cloth, and moistened with sulphuric ether; it is then placed on the two wooden strips, at the end that has been fastened to the stone, and slowly pulled over the strips at full length of the stone. It is sufficient to go once over the stone in the manner described in order to melt the rosin powder, together with the colour, by means of the ether vapours. Then the stone is etched for about one minute with the gum etching bath, which should be strong enough, so that, it slightly scums if poured on the stone. The stone is then ready to be printed from.

With the same paper, transfers can also be made on zinc to produce relief blocks, and, indeed, it is used for this purpose by many large establishments. - -(H. E. Gunther.) (See also ii. 183.)