# A Practical Workshop Companion For Tin, Sheet Iron, And Copper Plate Workers | by Leroy J. Blinn

Containing rules for describing various kinds of patterns used by tin, sheet iron, and copper plate workers; practical geometry; mensuration of surfaces and solids; tables op the weights of metals, lead pipe, etc.; tables of areas and circumferences of circles; japans, varnishes, lackers, cements, compositions, etc., etc., etc.

 Title A Practical Workshop Companion For Tin, Sheet Iron, And Copper Plate Workers Author Leroy J. Blinn Publisher Henry Carey Baird Year 1865 Copyright 1864, Leroy J. Blinn Amazon A Practical Workshop Companion For Tin, Sheet Iron, And Copper Plate Workers

By Leroy J. Blinn, Master Mechanic.

Rules For Describing Patterns. A Cone
Fig. 1. To describe an Envelop for a Cone. Let ABI be the given cone. From I as centre, with the radius IA, describe the arc CD; make CD; equal in length to the circumference of AB (which can b...
Oval. To Describe A Pattern For A Tapering Oval Article, To Be In Four Sections
Describe the bottom, the length and breadth required as in fig. 6, describe the sides as in fig. 6 and 7. Describe the right angle ABC, fig. 6; make BF the altitude, draw the line DF at right angle...
Oval. To Describe A Pattern For A Tapering Oval Article
Describe the bottom, the length and breadth required as in fig. 14; describe the body as in figs. 15 and 16; describe the right angle ABC, fig. 15; make BE the altitude, draw the line DE at right angl...
Oval. To Describe A Pattern For A Tapering Oval Or Oblong Article, The Sides To Be Straight, One End To Be A Semi-Circle, The Other End To Be Straight With Quarter Circle Corners, To Be In Two Sections
Describe the bottom, the length and breadth required as in fig. 20; the body as in figs. 21 and 22; describe the right angle ABC, fig. 21: make BG the altitude, draw the line DG at right angle to BC: ...
Covering Of Circular Roofs
Circular Roofs may be covered upon two different principles First Method Assume the vertical section, or axis, to be divided into a number of equal parts, and the roof, or figure, cut by planes ...
Square and Rectangle
Fig. 29. To describe a Pattern for a Tapering Square Article. Fig.30. To describe a Pattern for a Square Tapering article, to be in Two Sections. Erect the perpendicular line EF equal to...
Octagon
To Describe A Pattern For Tapering Octagon Top Or Cover Erect the perpendicular line GE, fig. 35; draw the line AB at right angle to GE; make FE equal to the Slant height of the article, and draw t...
Octagon. Continued
To Describe A Pattern For A Miter Joint For An O G Gutter At Right Angles Let ABCD, fig. 40, be the given gutter; divide the curved line BO into any number of equal parts from the points; draw line...
Pipes
To Describe A T Pipe At Right Angles Let ABCD, fig. 47, be the length and diameter of the T; describe the semi-circle CED; divide the semicircle into any number of equal parts; from the points draw...
Pipe Elbows
Elbows Fig. 61. To describe an Elbow at Right Angles. Let ABCD, fig. 61, be the given elbow; draw the line AB at right angles to BC; draw the line FC; describe the semicircle AGB; divide the...
Pipe Elbows In Four Sections
Elbows In Four Sections Fig. 67. To describe a Pattern for an Elbow in Four Sections. Let ABED, fig. 67, be the given elbow; draw the line FC; make FM equal in length to one-half the diamete...
Tapering Elbow. Pipes
To Describe A Pattern For A Tapering Elbow Let AB and CD, fig. 71, equal large end of elbow, DHB the angle; make HF equal CG, and EP equal AB; make JK equal the small end of the elbow; draw the lin...
Octagon Or Square Top Or Cover
Fig. 77. To describe an Octagon or Square Top or Cover. Describe a circle, three-quarters of an inch larger in diameter than a circle that will cut each corner of the article the top or cover i...
Steamer Cover
Fig. 78. To describe a Steamer Cover. Describe a circle one inch larger in diameter than the hoop after the edge is laid off; lay the hoop on the plate, allowing an edge each side, as shown by ...
Oval
Fig. 79. To describe an Ellipse or Oval, having the Two Diameters given. On the intersection of the two diameters as a centre, with a radius equal to one-half the difference of the two diameter...
Ellipse
Fig. 81. To find the Centre and the two Arcs of an Ellipse. Let ABCD be an ellipse, it is required to find its centre; draw any two lines, as EF and GH, parallel and equal to each other; bisect...
Practical Geometry
Geometry is the science which investigates and demonstrates the properties of lines on surfaces and solids; hence, Practical Geometry is the method of applying the rules of science to practical purpos...
Practical Geometry. Part 2
To Draw From Or To The Circumference Of A Circle Lines Tending Towards The Centre, When The Centre Is Inaccessible Divide the whole or any given portion of the circumference into the desired number...
Practical Geometry. Part 3
To Describe A Parabola, The Dimensions Been Given Let AB equal the length, and CD the breadth of the required parabola; divide CA, CB into any number of equal parts; also, divide the ...
Practical Geometry. Part 4
To Find The Length For A Rectangle Whose Area Shall Be Equal To That Of A Given Square, The Breadth Of The Rectangle Being Also Given Let ABCD be the given square, and DE the given breadth of recta...
Decimal Equivalents To Fractional Parts Of Lineal Measurement
One Inch the Integer or Whole Number. .96875 are equal to 7/8 & 3 32 .9375 7/8 & 1 16 ...
Definitions Of Arithmetical Signs Used In The Following Calculations
= Sign of Equality, and signifies as 4 + 6 = 10. + Addition, as 6 + 6 = 12, the Sum. - ...
Mensuration Of Surfaces
Mensuration is that branch of Mathematics which is employed in ascertaining the extension, solidities and capacities of bodies capable of being measured. To Measure Or Ascertain The Quantity Of Sur...
Triangles
To Find The Area Of A Triangle When The Base And Perpendicular Are Given, Fig. 3 Rule. - Multiply the base by the perpendicular height, and half the product is the area. The base of the triangle...
Of Polygons
To Find The Area Of A Regular Polygon Rule. - Multiply the length of a side by half the distance from the side to the centre, and that product by the number of sides; the last product will be the a...
The Circle And Its Sections
Observations And Definitions 1. The Circle contains a greater area than any other plain figure bounded by the same perimeter or outline. 2. The areas of Circles are to each other as the squares ...
The Circle And Its Sections. Continued
To Find The Length Of Any Arc Of A Circle Rule. - From eight times the chord of half the arc, subtract the chord of the whole arc, and one-third of the remainder will be the length nearly. Requi...
Of Cones Or Pyramids
To Find The Convex Surface Of A Right Cone Or Pyramid Rule. - Multiply the perimeter circumference of the base by the slant height, and half the product is the slant surface if the surface of the e...
Of Spheres
To Find The Convex Surface Of A Sphere Or Globe Fig. 12 Rule - Multiply the diameter of the Sphere by its circumference, and the product is its surface; or, Multiply the square of the diamete...
Of Cylinders
To Find The Convex Surface Of A Cylinder Role. - Multiply the circumference by the height or length the product will be the surface. Example. - The circumference of a cylinders is 0 ft., 4 inche...
Of Cones And Pyramids
To Find The Solidity Of A Cone Or A Pyramid Rule. - Multiply the area of the Base by the Perpendicular height, and 1/3 the product will be the Solidity. Example. - The base of a cone, fig. 13, i...
Of Spheres. Part 2
To Find The Contents In V. S. Standard Gallons Of The Frustrum Of A Cone Rule. - To the product of the diameters in inches, and decimal parts of an inch of the ends, add 1/3 the square of the diffe...
Of Spheres. Part 3
Tables Of The Circumferences Of Circles, To The Nearest Fraction of Practical Measurement also, The Areas Of Circles, In Inches, And Decimal Parts, Likewise In Feet And Decimal Parts, As M...
Of Spheres. Part 4
Sizes Of Tin-Ware In Form Of Frustrum Of A Cone Pans. Dish Kettles And Pails. Coffee Pots. Wash Bowls. Size. Diam of top. Diam,...
Measures
Size, Diam, of top; Diam, of bot, Height, 1 gal. 5 1/2 in 6 1/8 in 9 1...
Druggists' And Liquor Dealers' Measures
Size. Diam. of top. Diam. of bot. Height. 5 gal. 8 in 13 1/2 in 12...
Weight Of Water
1 cubic inch................ is equal to .03617 pounds. 12 cubic inches............. is equal to ...
Effects Produced By Water In An Aeriform State
When water in a vessel is subjected to the action of fire it readily imbibes the heat, or fluid principle of which the fire is the immediate cause, and sooner or latter, according to the intensity of ...
Heat
Effects of Heat at certain Temperatures. Geier Tin and Bismuth, equal parts, melt at 283 degrees, Fahrenheit; tin melts at 442; polished steel acquires straw color at 460; bismuth melts at 476; sul...
Tempering
The article after being completed, is hardened by being heated gradually to a bright red, and then plunged into cold water; it is then tempered by being warmed gradually and equably, either over a fir...
Effects Produced By Air In Its Natural And Also In A Rarefied State
The weight or pressure of the atmosphere is equal to the weight of a column of water 34 feet in height, or to a column of mercury 30 inches in height, or to 14.7 lbs. average per square inch, at a mea...
Crystallized Tin-Plate
Crystallized tin-plate, is a variegated primrose appearance, produced upon the surface of tin-plate, by applying to it in a heated state some dilute nitro-muriatic acid for a few seconds, then washing...
List Of Calibre And Weights Of Lead Pipe
Calibre & Weights of Fountains or Aqueduct Pipes Very light Lead Pipe for Hydraulic Rams, and for conducting water at long distances, under slight pressure or head of water. To A...
Recapitulation Of Weights Of Various Substances
Names. Cubic feet in lbs. Cubic inch in lbs. Cast iron.................................... 450.55 .2607 Wr...
Japanning And Varnishing
Japanning is the art of covering bodies by grounds of opaque colors in varnish, which may be afterwards decorated by printing or gilding, or left in a plain state. It is also to be looked upon in anot...
Gum Copal
Copal varnish is one of the very finest varnishes for japan-ing purposes. It can be dissolved by linseed oil, rendered dry by adding some quicklime at a heat somewhat less than will boil or decompose ...
To Japan Or Varnish White Leather
To Japan Or Varnish White Leather so that it may be elastic, is altogether a different work from varnishing or japanning wood or metal, or papier mache For white leather oil is the principal ingred...
Japans
Black Grounds Black grounds for japans may be made by mixing ivory black with shellac varnish; or for coarse work, lamp black and the top coating of common seedlac varnish. A common black japan may...
Japans. Continued
Orange Colored Grounds Orange grounds may be made of yellow mixed with vermillion or carmine, just as a bright or rather inferior color is wanted. The yellow should always be in quantity to make a ...
Japan Finishing
The finishing part of japanning lies in laying on and polishing the outer coats of varnish, which is necessary in all painted or simply ground colord japan work. When brightness and clearness are want...
Varnishes
Different substances are employed for making varnish, the object being to produce a liquid easily applied to the surface of cloth, paper or metal, which, when dry, will protect it with a fine skin. Gu...
Varnishes. Continued
Varnish For Wood-Work Powdered gum sandarch eight parts, gum mastic two parts, seed-lac eight parts, and digest in a warm place for some days with alcohol twenty-four parts, and finally, dilute wit...
Varnish Resins
The following are the chief Resins employed in the manufacture of Varnishes Amber This resin is most distinguished for durability. It is usually of some shade of yellow, transparent, hard and mo...
Sandarach
This is a pale, odorous resin, less hard than lac, with which it is often associated as a spirit-varnish. It consists of three resins differing as to solubility in alcohol, either, and turpentine. It ...
Spirit Varnishes
These varnishes may be readily colored - red, by dragon's blood; yellow, by gamboge. If a colored varnish is required, clearly no account need be taken of the color of the resins. Lac varnish may be b...
Oil Varnishes
The most durable and lustrous of varnishes are composed of a mixture of resin, oil, and spirit of turpentine. The oils most frequently employed are linseed and walnut; the resins chiefly copal and amb...
Lacker
This is used for wood or brass work, and is also a varnish. For brass, the proportions are half a pound of pale shell lac to one gallon of spirit of wine. It is better prepared without the aid of heat...
Copal Varnishes
1. Copal Varnishes 1. Oil of turpentine one pint, set the bottle in a water bath, and add in small portions at a time, three ounces of powdered copal that has been previously melted by a gentle hea...
Copal Varnishes. Continued
3. Copal Varnishes 1. Melt in an iron pan at a slow heat, copal gum powdered, eight parts, and add balsam copaiva, previously warmed, two parts. Then remove from the fire, and add spirits of turpen...
White Hard Spirit Varnishes
1. Gum sandarach five pounds, camphor one ounce, rectified spirit 65 over proof) two gallons, washed and dried coarsely-pounded glass two pounds; proceed as in making mastic varnish; when strained add...
Brown Hard Spirit Varnishes
1. Sandarach four ounces' pale seed lac, two ounces, elemi (true) one ounce, alcohol one quart; digest with agitation till dissolved, then add Venice turpentine two ounces. 2. Gum sandarach three poun...
Amber Varnishes
1. Amber one pound, pale boiled oil ten ounces, turpentine one pint. Render the amber, placed in an iron pot, semi-liquid by heat; then add the oil, mix, remove it from the fire, and when cooled a lit...
Varnishes For Furniture
The simplest, and perhaps the best, is the solution of shellac only, but many add gums sandarach, mastic, copal, arabic, benjamin, etc., from the idea that they contribute to the effect. Gum arabic is...
Furniture Polishes
To French Polish The wood must be placed level, and sand-papered until it is quite smooth, otherwise it will not polish. Then provide a rubber of cloth, list, or sponge, wrap it in a soft rag, so a...
Etching Varnishes
1. White wax, two ounces; black and Burgundy pitch, of each one-half ounce; melt together, add by degrees powdered asphal-tum two ounces, and boil till a drop taken out on a plate will break when cold...
Milk Of Wax
Milk of wax is a valuable varnish, which may be prepared as follows: - Melt in a porcelain capsule a certain quantity of white wax, and add to it, while in fusion, an equal quantity of spirit of wine,...
Crystal Varnishes
1. Genuine pale Canada balsam and rectified oil of turpentine, equal parts; mix, place the bottle in warm water, agitate well, set it aside, in a moderately warm place, and in a week pour off the clea...
Italian Varnishes
1. Boil Scio turpentine till brittle, powder, and dissolve in oil of turpentine. 2. Canada balsam and clear white resin, of each six ounces, oil of turpentine one quart; dissolve. Used for prints, etc...
Mastic Varnishes
1. (Fine.) Very pale and picked gum mastic five pounds, glass pounded as small as barley, and well washed and dried two and one-half pounds, rectified turpentine two gallons; put them into a clean fou...
India-Rubber Varnishes
1. Cut up one pound of India rubber into small pieces rnd diffuse in half a pound of sulphuric ether, which is done by digesting in a glass flask on a sand bath. Then add one pound pale linseed oil va...
Waterproof Varnishes
Take one pound of flowers of sulphur and one gallon of linseed oil, and boil them together until they are thoroughly combined. This forms a good varnish for waterproof textile fabrics. Another is m...
Lackers
Gold Lacker Put into a clean four gallon tin, one pound of ground turmeric, one and a half ounces of gamboge, three and a half pounds of powdered gum sandarach, three quarters of a pound of shellac...
Armenian Or Diamond Cement
This article, so much esteemed for uniting pieces of broken glass, for repairing precious stones, and for cementing them to watch cases and other ornaments, is made by soaking isinglass in water until...
Cements
Cement For Mending Earthern And Glass Ware 1. Heat the article to be mended, a little above boiling water heat, then apply a thin coating of gum shellac, on both surfaces of the broken vessel, and ...
Cements. Part 2
Cement For Iron Tubes, Boilers, Etc Finely powdered iron sixty-six parts, sal-ammoniac one part, water a sufficient quantity to form into paste. Cement For Ivory, Mother Of Pearl, Etc Dissolv...
Cements. Part 3
Transparent Cement For Glass Dissolve one part of India-rubber in 64 of chloroform, then add gum mastic in powder 14 to 24 parts, and digest for two days with frequent shaking. Apply with a camels-...
Artificial Gold
This is a new metallic alloy which is now very extensively used in France as a substitute for gold. Pure copper 100 parts, zinc, or preferably tin 17 parts, magnesia 6 parts, sal ammoniac 3-6 parts, q...
To Galvanize
Take a solution of nitro-muriate of gold (gold dissolved in a mixture of aquafortis and muriatic acid) and add to a gill of it a pint of ether or alcohol, then immerse your copper chain in it for abou...
Glue
A Liquid Glue That Keeps For Years Dissolve 2 pounds good glue in 2 1-9 pints hot water; add gradually, 7 oz. nitric acid, and mix well. Prepared Liquid Glue Take of best white glue 16 ounces...
Miscellaneous Receipts
Paint For Coating Wire Work Boil good linseed oil with as much litharge as will make it of the consistency to be laid on with the brush; add lampblack at the rate of one part to every ten, by weigh...
Miscellaneous Receipts. Continued
Or-Molu The or-molu of the brass founder, popularly known as an imitation of red gold, is extensively used by the French workmen in metals. It is generally found in combination with grate and stove...
Britannia
Hardening For Britannia To Be Mixed Separately From The Other Ingredients. Copper, 2 Lbs.; Tin, 1 Lb Good Britannia Metal Tin, 150 lbs.; copper, 3 lbs.; antimony, 10 lbs. Britannia Metal, ...
Solders
Solder For Gold Gold, 6 pwts.; silver, 1 pwt.; copper, 2 pwts. S0lder For Silver, For The Use Of Jeweller's Fine silver, 19 pwts.; copper, 1 pwt.; sheet brass, 10 pwts. White Solder, For S...
Dipping Acid
Yellow Dipping Metal Copper, 32 lbs.; zinc, 2 lbs.; soft solder, 2 1/2 ozs. Quick Bright Dipping Acid, For Brass Which Has Been Ormoloud Sulphuric acid 1 gall.; nitric acid, 1 gall. Dippin...
Bronze Dips
Vinegar Bronze For Brass Vinegar, 10 galls.; blue vitriol, 3 lbs.; muriatic acid, 3 lbs.; corrosive sublimate, 4 grs.; sal ammonia, 2 lbs.; alum, 8 ozs. Brown Bronze Dip Iron scales, 1 lb.; a...
Silvering
Silvering By Heat Dissolve 1 oz. of silver in nitric acid; add a small quantity of salt; then wash it and add sal ammoniac, or 6 ozs. of salt and white vitriol; also 1/4 oz. of corrosive sublimate,...
Gold
Solvent For Gold Mix equal quantities of nitric and muriatic acids. Chinese White Copper Copper, 40.4; nickel, 31.6; zinc, 25.4; iron, 2.6 parts. Manheim Gold Copper, 3; zinc, 1 part an...
Cast Iron
Composition Used In Welding Cast Steel Borax, 10; sal ammoniac, 1 part; grind or pound them roughly together; then fuse them in a metal pot over a clear fire, taking care to continue the heat until...
Strength Of Materials
[From Grier's Mechanic's Calculator, etc.] Bar of Iron. - The average breaking weight of a Bar of Wrought Iron, 1 inch square, is 25 tons; its elasticity is destroyed, however, by about two-fifths ...
Models Proportioned To Machines
The relation of models to machines, as to strength, deserves the particular attention of the mechanic. A model may be perfectly proportioned in all its parts as a model, yet the machine, if constructe...
Practical and Scientific Books
Published By Henry Carey Baird Industrial Publisher No. 406 W alnut Street, Philadelphia Any of the following Books will be sent by mail, free of postage, at the publication price. Cata...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 2
Oblique Projections. - Application of rules to the delineation of an oscillating cylinder, Plate XLI. Parallel Perspective. - Principles and applications, Plate XLII. True Perspective. - Element...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 3
Byrne. The Practical Metal-worker's Assistant, For Tin-plate Workers, Braziers, Coppersmiths, Zinc-plate Ornrmenters and Workers, Wire Workers, Whitesmiths, Blacksmiths, Bell Hangers, Jewellers, Si...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 4
Dyeing, Calico Printing, Colors, Cotton Spinning, And Woolen Manufacture Baird. The American Cotton Spinner, and Manager's and Carder's Guide; A Practical Treatise on Cotton Spinning; giving the...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 5
This edition of Scott's Cotton-Spinner, by Oliver Byrne, is designed for the American Operative. It will be found intensely practical, and will be of the greatest possible value to the Manager, Overse...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 6
Johnson, The Coal Trade of British America; With Researches on the Characters and Practical Values of American and Foreign Coals. By Walter R. Johnson, Civil and Mining Engineer and Chemist. 8vo...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 7
Napier's Electro-Metallurgy is generally regarded as the very best Practical Treatise on the Subject in the English Language. CONTENTS. - History of the Art of Electro-Metallurgy - Description of G...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 8
Social Science The Works of Henry C. Carey. I challenge the production from among the writers on political economy of a more learned, philosophical, and convincing speculator on that theme, tha...
Practical and Scientific Books. Part 9
Published By Henry Carey Baird. The Works Of Henry C. Carey. This book is so abundantly full of notices, facts, comparisons, calculations, and arguments, that too much would be lost by laying a...