This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
V. conspersa Reichenb. Ic. Crit. 1: 44. 1823.
Viola Muhlenbergii Torr. Fl. U. S. 1: 256. 1824.
Glabrous; rootstock oblique, often much branched; stems 3 1/2'-6' high at time of vernal flowering; lower leaves orbicular, cordate, crenate-serrate, obtuse, becoming 3/4'-1 1/2' wide; the upper somewhat smaller, subacuminate; stipules ovate-lanceolate, serrately ciliate especially toward the base; flowers numerous, usually pale violet, sometimes white, raised above the leaves on axillary peduncles 2'-3' long; cleistogamous flowers in summer on short peduncles from the same axils that bore vernal flowers, or from axils of later leaves of the lengthened stems; style bent downward at the tip and slightly hairy; seeds light brown.
Low or shaded ground. Quebec to Minnesota, south to the mountains of northern Georgia. Regarded as not distinct from the following species in the first edition of this work. April-May. Early blue violet.
V. labradorica Schrank, Denksch. Bot. Gesell.
Regensb. 2: 12. 1818. Viola punctata Schwein. Am. Journ. Sci. 5: 67.
1822. V. Muhlenbergiana var. minor Hook. FI. Bor. Am.
Rootstock long, tapering, scaly above, sometimes branching; stems few, slender, 1-3-leaved, erect or ascending, usually about 2$' high, bearing 1 or 2 petaliferous flowers on long peduncles; lower leaves long-petioled, blades orbicular, subcordate, glabrous, 1/2'-3/4' wide; upper leaves on shorter petioles with smaller blades, more or less ovate, obtuse, sparsely hirtellous on the upper surface; stipules linear, attenuate, entire or with one or two filiform appendages at the base; petals deep violet; sepals lanceolate with round auricles; capsules subglobose, 2 1/2" long.
Alpine and subarctic; Greenland and Labrador, south to the high-mountains of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. July-Aug.
Viola adunca J. E. Smith in Rees' Cycl. 37: No.
63. 1817. Viola longipes Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 140.
Acad. 8. 377. 1872.
Glabrous or nearly so; rootstock woody, jagged and chaffy from the remains of former leaves; stems slender, several or many and spreading, 1 1/2'-12' high, bearing 1-3 axillary flowers; basal and lower stem-leaves long-petioled, the blades ovate, obtuse, finely crenate, subcordate or more or less decurrent at the base, 5"-10" wide; upper leaves short-petioled, narrower, less rounded at the apex; stipules linear, attenuate, sparsely spinulose-serrulate; flowers usually raised above the leaves on peduncles 1 1/2'-4' long; petals violet to purple, 5"-7 1/2" long, the lateral bearded; spur rather long, often curved upward or hooked; capsules ellipsoid, 3$" long.
Eastern Quebec, northern New Brunswick, northern Ontario and in the mountains of Colorado and California, north to Alaska. May-July.