7. Rubus ┴rcticus L. Arctic Bramble

Fig. 2294

Rubus arcticus L. Sp. Pl. 494. 1753.

R. acaulis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am, 1: 298. 1803.

Stems erect, simple or branched from the base, herbaceous, 3'-10' high, unarmed, finely pubescent, sometimes leafless below. Stipules oval or ovate, obtuse, 2"-4" long; leaves slender-petioled, 3-foliolate (rarely 5-foliolate); leaflets sessile or short-stalked, rhombic-ovate or obovate, coarsely and unequally serrate or slightly lobed, 9"-18" long; flowers solitary, or occasionally 2, terminal, slender-peduncled, pink, or rarely white, 6"-12" broad, sometimes dioecious; sepals acute, equalling or shorter than the obovate, entire or emarginate clawed petals; fruit light red, of several or numerous persistent or tardily deciduous drupelets, edible, fragrant.

In peat-bogs and damp woods, Quebec to Manitoba and British Columbia, and throughout arctic America. Also in northern Europe and Asia. Strawberry-leaved bramble. The petals of the American plant are mostly longer-clawed than those of the European. Summer.

8. Rubus Trifl˛rus Richards. Dwarf Red Blackberry

Fig. 2205

Rubus saxatilis var. canadensis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:

298. 1803. Not R. canadensis L. 1753. R. saxatilis var. americanus Pers. Syn. 2: 52. 1807. Rubus triflorus Richards. Franklin Journ. Ed. 2, App.

19. 1823. R. americanus Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 185. 1894.

Stem trailing or ascending, unarmed, annual, herbaceous, or slightly woody and sometimes branched below, 6'-18' long, somewhat pubescent. Stipules oval, entire or few-toothed, 3"-5" long; leaves peti-oled, pedately or pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 5-foliolate; leaflets rhombic-ovate, glabrous or nearly so, acute, the lateral ones mostly rounded, the terminal ones cuneate at the base, all sharply and often doubly serrate; peduncles slender, 1-3-flowered, glandular-pubescent; flowers 4"-6" broad; petals 5-7, white, spatulate-oblong, erect, rather longer than the acuminate reflexed sepals; fruit red-purple, about 6" long.

In swamps, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Iowa and Nebraska. Intermediate between blackberries and raspberries. May-July. Running raspberry. Mulberry. Plum-bog-. swamp- or pigeon-berry. Dewberry. Fruit ripe July-Aug.

8 Rubus Trifl Rus Richards Dwarf Red Blackberry 6378 Rubus Trifl Rus Richards Dwarf Red Blackberry 638

9. Rubus Cuneif˛lius Pursh. Sand Blackberry. Low Or Knee-High Blackberry

Fig. 2296

Rubus parvifolius Walt. Fl. Car. 149. 1788. Not L.

1753. Rubus cuneifolius Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 347. 1814.

Shrubby, erect or nearly so, 1°-3° high, much branched, armed with stout straight or recurved prickles, the young shoots and lower surfaces of the leaves densely whitish-pubescent. Stipules linear; leaves petioled, 3-5-foliolate; leaflets thick, rugose above, l'-2' long, obovate or rarely oval, obtuse, dentate, especially above the middle, the terminal one cuneate; peduncles mainly terminal, 2-5-flowered; flowers white or pinkish, nearly 1' broad; petals exceeding the sepals; fruit brownish-black, often 1' long, delicious.

In sandy soil, southern Connecticut to Florida, west to Missouri and Louisiana. Brier-berry. May-July. Fruit ripe July-Aug.