Materials used in distilleries (United Kingdom). Year ended September 30th, 1913.*

Country.

Malt. Quarters.

Unmalted grain. Quarters.

Molasses. Cwts.

Rice. Cwts.

Other materials.

Cwts.

England .............. .

91,157

247,047

1,204,223

3,780

20,713

Scotland ..............

781,862

606,251

-

-

-

Ireland ................

180,589

345,432

-

-

-

United Kingdom.

1,053,608

1,198,730

1,204,223

3,780

20,713

* Later figures are available, but on account of war conditions they are less representative of normal production.

The making of yeast is now a very important operation in many of the larger distilleries, in addition to spirit production. About two-fifths of the total alcohol distilled in the United Kingdom is made at distilleries where the production of yeast is also carried on.

Normally, there are about 150 to 160 alcohol-producing distilleries in the kingdom. The following table shows the number working, and the number of those making yeast, in the year ended September 30th, 1913. The fifteen yeast-producing distilleries contributed 20.6 millions of proof gallons of alcohol towards a total production of 49.6 millions from all the distilleries.

Distilleries in the United Kingdom. Year 1912-13.

Kind.

England.

Scotland.

Ireland.

United Kingdom.

I.

Making yeast -

Using patent-stills, with or without pot-stills

3

7

5

15

II

Not making yeast -

(a). Using patent-stills, with or without pot-stills

5

6

2

13

(b). Using pot-stills only

-

114

17

131

Totals........................

8

127

24

159

Thus as regards the number of distilleries Scotland comes easily first. The quantity of alcohol distilled in Scotland, however, is only about twice as much as in England, and two and a-half times as much as in Ireland. Small pot-still distilleries are a notable feature of the Scotch alcohol industry. The 114 pot-stills noted in the table produced barely one-third of the total amount of spirit distilled north of the Tweed. Of course, the number of distilleries working may vary a little from year to year. In 1914 it had risen from 159 to 163; and in 1915 it had fallen to 142, probably by reason of war conditions.

Spirits distilled in the United Kingdom: quantities. - During the ten years from 1907 to 1916 the annual production of distilled alcohol in Scotland ranged from 20 to 28 millions of proof gallons, in England from 107 to 139 millions, and in Ireland from 97 to 12.2 millions. In gallons of absolute alcohol (100 per cent, alcohol) these figures are approximately equivalent to: -

For Scotland,

11.4

to

16.0

millions;

"

England,

6.1

"

7.9

"

"

Ireland,

5.5

"

7.0

"

The actual total production of spirits distilled in the United Kingdom in each of the five years 1912-1916 is shown below: -

Year ended March 31st.

Proof gallons.

Equivalent gallons of absolute alcohol.

1912..................

45,717,249

26,071,994

1913...................

46,692,764

26,628,319

1914...................

51,802,468

29,542,321

1915...................

50,139,557

28,593,983

1916...................

49,135,199

28,021,210

An idea of the relative proportions in which pot-still and patent-still spirits are produced in Scotch and Irish distilleries may be gathered from the following figures: - 1

From malt only.

From malt and grain.

Year 1907.

Proof gallons.

Scotland:

Pot-still .......................

10,487,685

Patent-still ....................

399,547

14,339,836

Ireland:

Pot-still ..........................

279,728

3,313,446

Patent-still ......................

-

8,372,607

The table shows also the proprtion produced from malt only compared with the quantity obtained from a mixture of malt and unmalted grain. These are practically the only materials which at the date of the report quoted (1909) had been recently used in Scotland or Ireland for the production of distilled alcohol, though molasses, sugar, and potatoes were used to a small extent in years gone by.

In England at the present time a considerable quantity of alcohol is produced from molasses, as well as from malt and unmalted grain. Rice and other materials are also employed, but to a relatively small extent, as will be seen from the table previously given (p. 102).

The total quantity of spirits retained for home consumption in the United Kingdom during the year 1913-14 was 32,596,426 proof gallons, equivalent to 18,589,348 gallons of absolute alcohol. This does not include alcohol intended for making into methylated spirit, nor that for use duty-free in arts and manufactures.

For the separate countries, and per head of the population, the quantities were as follows: -

The quantity of spirits received by methylators during the same period, for conversion into methylated spirit, was 7,719,308 proof gallons, equivalent to 4,402,228 gallons of absolute alcohol. For

1 Royal Commission on Whisky, Report, pp. 7, 8.

Total quantity.

Quantity per head of the population.

Proof gallons.

Proof gallons.

England..................................

22,559,759

0.61

Scotland.................................

6,850,419

1.45

Ireland...................................

3,186,248

0.72

United Kingdom......................

32,596,426

0.71

use duty-free, either in a pure state by colleges, hospitals, etc., or with special denaturauts in various arts and manufactures, the quantity was 791,228 proof gallons, equivalent to 451,227 gallons of absolute alcohol. This includes 63,179 proof gallons of methyl alcohol, imported from abroad.

Alcohol exported and imported: United Kingdom. - The exports of home-made spirits (other than methylated spirit) amount approximately to 10 million proof gallons per annum.

In normal times "plain" spirits - i.e., alcohol not sweetened or flavoured - are imported to the extent of about half a million to three-quarters of a million proof gallons, chiefly from Germany and Russia.

Revenue from Spirits: United Kingdom. - The net receipts of revenue from home-made and imported spirits in the five years 1911-15 were as follows: -

Year.

Home-made.

Imported.

Total.

1911......

18,751,206

4,298,484

23,049,690

1912......

18,511,392

4,215,745

22,727,137

1913......

18,432,492

4,166,795

22,599,287

1914......

19,539,777

4,435,500

23,975,277

1915......

20,302,500

4,972,005

25,274,505

Rates Of Duty, 1918 (United Kingdom).

Excise: -

s.

d.

Beer, of original specific gravity 1055° ...............

2

10

0

per 36 gallons.

Cider or perry .....................................................

0

0

4

„ gallon.

Spirits: -

Warehoused for 3 years or more ...........................

1

10

0

the proof gallon.

„ 2 „ and less than 3 years

1

11

0

" "

Not warehoused, or warehoused for less than 2 years ...........................................................

1

11

6

" "

Customs: -

Spirits: The Customs duties on plain spirits, and also on Geneva and imitation rum, are 5d. per proof gallon more than those shown above. On brandy and rum, the excess above the Excise rate is 4d. per gallon. For sweetened spirits and perfumed spirits, the rate varies according to whether the spirits are imported in cask or in bottle.

s.

d.

Chloral hydrate.....................................................................

0

1

9

per

lb.

Chloroform...........................................................................

0

4

4

"

"

Collodion ............................................................................

1

14

11

"

gallon.

Ether, acetic...........................................................................

0

2

7

"

lb.

,, butyric.......................................................................

1

1

10

"

gallon.

„ sulphuric.....................................................................

1

16

6

"

"

Ethyl bromide ...................................................................

0

1

5

"

lb.

„ chloride........................................................................

1

1

10

"

gallon.

„ iodide.............................................................................

0

19

0

"

"

Imports, into the United Kingdom, of methyl alcohol not purified sufficiently to be potable: -

Country.

1913.

1914.

Gallons.

Gallons.

Canada ............................

162,631

82,755

United States ..................

297,702

355,881

Germany............................

93,500

32,326

Other countries...................

64,210

26,281

618,043

497,243

Value.......................

70,175

53,264