I. The scarlet thorns planted on both sides of the wall on either side of the gate make an excellent frame for this architectural detail at the garden entrance.................Frontispiece

II. This map shows those portions of the United States which because of climatic environment and geographic location possess similar planting seasons. Investigation of zones of similar planting seasons has, to date, not provided complete information to the landscape architect in his slanting work. For supplementary information refer to Plate No. III on Page 14. (In colour)............. 6

The scarlet thorns planted on both sides of the wall on either side of the gate make an excellent frame for this architectural detail at the garden entrance

Complete Garden, The Plate I. The scarlet thorns planted on both sides of the wall on either side of the gate make an excellent frame for this architectural detail at the garden entrance. (See Plate XXIV, page 158)

III. A chart to aid in determining the most favourable period for transplanting, and for seeding of lawns in various sections of the United States. Note the long winter periods of the Northern Zones and the continuous planting seasons of the Southern Zones. It is of great importance to be able to plan ahead and to order plants for delivery at the proper time for any section of the country. These are average seasons resulting from observations of normal seasons during a period of years. For supplementary information refer to Plate No. II on Page 6 ..... 14

IV. The hedge which may look unkept and ragged if not pruned will in the hands of the skilled gardener assume almost any degree of refined outline. These photographs show one of our most desirable hedge plants, the Japanese privet (Ligustrum ibota)..........20

V. The correct pruning of trees and shrubs is a great factor in the successful maintenance of landscape plantings. These diagrammatic drawings together with the explanations on the opposite page illustrate correct and incorrect methods of pruning...........24

VI. A knowledge of the various operations involved in the work of correctly transplanting plants is essential for their subsequent normal development. These diagrammatic drawings accompanied by the explanation on the opposite page illustrate various transplanting operations. . . 34

VII. Immediately after transplanting, the trunk of every large tree should.be protected with a covering of burlap (Fig. B) which prevents excessive drying out and consequent cracking and loosening of the bark (Fig. A). This protection is especially necessary during the warmer summer months...................40

VIII. To most of us in the northern states the method of seeding a lawn is familiar, but the method of making lawns in southern states by planting Bermuda grass is little known. In these photographs small clumps of Bermuda grass are being planted in "hills" staggered at intervals ranging from eighteen inches to thirty inches. The thicker the planting the more quickly a mat of turf can be developed........41 xxiii

IX. It is important to know the depth, distance apart, and time of the year at which different kinds of bulbs should be planted. Many disappointing flower effects are the result of violating these rules with reference to depth, distance apart, and time of planting........46

X. Trees are given winter protection both against injury from sun-scald and against injury from severe wind and changing temperature conditions. This photograph shows one method of protecting hemlocks against the sun's rays...............62

XI. The list of evergreens adapted to soil and to climatic conditions of the middle west, and valuable for low, refined mass plantings is limited. The upper photograph shows an effect produced by the use of dwarf yew, Pfitzer's and tamarisk-leaved junipers, Mugho pines and Japanese spurge edging. The lower photograph shows the effectiveness of masses of low, refined evergreens against massive architecture.......63

XII. Under climatic and soil conditions favourable to their growth evergreens will produce a landscape picture incapable of reproduction through the use of deciduous plants. This photograph shows an effective use, under Long Island conditions, of arborvitae, red cedars, junipers, rhododendron, and yews as a background for a refined, formal pool.... 78

XIII. Carefully selected and planted trees for avenue and street planting provide a uniform and a symmetrical effect together with the inviting shade, all of which are so essential to the standards of modern residential districts...................79

XIV. The list of trees and shrubs which thrive in the congested city districts where soil conditions are poor and the air is polluted with smoke and dust is limited to a few kinds, of which the tree of heaven, locust, and catalpa are typical ...............94

XV. An interesting use of hedges to frame one side of the refined formal farden. Japanese quince on the left side of the walk. Japanese bar-erry against the right side accented with sheared retinosporas, and buttresses of Japanese quince and Amoor River privet on the extreme left against the vine-covered wall, form the features of this composition ...................95

XVI. Plume-like cypress, naturally a small tree, can be maintained as a compact and a very formal low hedge if given plenty of skillful pruning and protection in winter..............no

XVII. The Canadian hemlock, when grown from the northern seed and when well established, forms one of the best windbreaks and barriers for the protection of the garden or orchard wherever drifting snow must be overcome and seclusion also attained...........no

XVIII. Upon a spacious lawn effective use can occasionally be made of trees and shrubs possessing symmetrical habits of growths and fine flowering and fruiting qualities. The deutzia is a shrub with these capabilities, but it is seldom seen as a specimen plant. Restraint, however, must be observed and a dotted effect avoided..........110