XIX. The extended lawn area often requires specimen trees to lend scale and colour to the picture, and it also offers opportunity to display the natural beauty of many of our fine specimen trees.......ill

XX. An effective combination of stone work and of plantings in an informal lawn area. Varieties of stonecrop, moss pinks, and Scotch pinks lend charm to an otherwise uninteresting mass of stone. (See Plate No. Liu, Page 334, for lily planting shown in background of this picture.) 126

XXI. An uninteresting rocky slope often can be turned into an attractive landscape feature through the careful selection and planting of plants adapted to light, sandy soils. This slope is covered with a grouping of hardy pinks, evergreen candytuft, saxifrage, and tufted pansy . 127

XXII. To develop a successful rock garden, not only must the stones be well placed, but the plants must be selected to produce an effect in keeping with the scale of the garden; otherwise the effect will be that of a collection of stones which overpower the garden picture, as shown above..................142

XXIII. To few of us does the term "wall garden" convey a definite impression. Yet how frequently the opportunity comes, even in a small way, to change a wall of rock to a wall of flowers and foliage. In this photograph we see Scotch pinks, creeping phlox, golden tuft, tunica, and other similar plants used to excellent advantage . 143

XXIV. An interior view of a pleached allee eight years after transplanting. Note the spacing of the larger plants of the European cork maple at intervals of three feet, with "fillers" between each two of the larger trees. Compare with Plate No. XXVII on Page 175 for the exterior view. Openings have been cut in the top of this allee to produce interesting spots of sunlight on the walk .......158

XXV. An excellent illustration of pleasing garden formality filled with boxwood hedges, as edgings for carpet plantings of Japanese spurge, and accented with specimens of California privet neatly trimmed in a pyramidal form to represent boxwood.........159

XXVI. The use of bay trees in tubs is required in many of the northern gardens to produce accent points often at spots where no permanent plant can be planted in the ground. These trees are stored in cool greenhouses during the winter months...........174

XXVII. A pleached allee may form not only a most interesting feature as shown on Plate No. XXIV, Page 158, but this one serves as a solid screen between the lawn area and the service buildings . . . . 175

XXVIII. This open allee is framed on either side by a solid row of closely sheared thorn trees. Its formal lines are softened by the row of pink-flowering dogwoods which add a charm of flowers in early spring and of fruit in the late fall. Thorns planted four to five feet apart and dogwoods eight feet apart. Width between rows of thorns twenty-two feet and between rows of dogwoods nine to ten feet. (See explanation of measurementsson Page 144).........190

XXIX. An open allee twelve feet wide and eight hundred feet long, developed by the use of white birch planted three to four feet apart in each row. For a permanent allee of this type the birch is not ideal because of its short-lived characteristics and susceptibility to borer. Thorns or the European beech would be preferable. . . . . . . . 191

XXX. A group of Japanese snowball, producing flowers in spring soon after the leaves appear, adds much to the attractiveness of a landscape picture..................206












It is quite important in the planting of the spring garden that the designer should know those shrubs which produce flowers before the leaves appear, similar to the Carolina azalea (B), and those early-flowering shrubs which produce flowers and leaves at the same time, similar to the bladder-nut (A). (In colour).....214

In the permanent planting no flowering tree or shrub deserves more favourable consideration than the fine type of Scheidecker's semi-double rose-flowering crab illustrated above.......222

As a specimen flowering plant for early spring effect the Japanese weeping rose-flowered cherry is extremely interesting, covered always before the leaves appear with an abundance of rose-pink flowers.................223

It is a source of much satisfaction to the plant designer to know that shrubs which are carefully selected for the colour of their flowers may produce very effective colour combinations. This plate shows the St. John's wort (A) in combination with the sweet-scented buddleia (B). (In colour)..........230

The average person who has not become interested in the colour effects produced by the fruits of our common trees and shrubs can hardly appreciate the intense colour display of the American bittersweet (A), the Washington thorn (B), and the white fringe (C). (In colour.)................230

The garden designer must always bear in mind that many of our shrubs which produce very uninteresting flowers are the ones which produce our most attractive fruiting effects. The variation in colours of the fruits ranges from the pure white of the snowberry (A) through the purple and porcelain blue of the beauty fruit (C) to the vivid reds of which the Japanese bush cranberry (B) is typical. (In colour) .............230

Not only because of the interesting colour of its fruit in combination with the fruit of other shrubs, but because of the size and abundance of its fruit, the snowberry is one of our conspicuous and valuable shrubs..................238

During the winter months when there is little else in the shrub border to attract attention, the vivid colours of the twigs of many of our shrubs present interesting spots of colour against the background of evergreens or snow. (A) - red-twigged dogwood; (B) - green-stemmed dogwood; (C) - red birch; (D) - golden-twigged osier; (E) - grey dogwood; (F) - striped maple. (In colour) . . 246