Gloire de Dijon, L'Ideal, Cheshunt Hybrid and Alister Stella Gray may be considered. If a few more Roses are wanted for pillars or pergolas, the claims of Felicité-et-Pérpétue, René André, The Lion (not the Lyon), Mrs. F. W. Flight, the Penzance Briars Lucy Ashton, Meg Merrilees, Rose Bradwardine and Anne of Geierstein, Tausendschôn, Leuchtstern, Tea Rambler, Dundee Rambler, and Trier may be considered. It will not be practicable to prune all these wall Roses quite the same as the Wichuraianas and Ramblers, because they will not throw up so much wood from the base. The best course is to shorten the side branches hard when they get crowded, and new flowering wood will break up to take its place. All Roses love a deep substantial soil; but the Wichuraianas will thrive in poor, chalky land where few of the other sections would grow, and this will be a strong inducement to plant them in the case of many garden-lovers.
The genus Smilax gives several plants suitable for climbing, but this does not include the plant commonly grown under the name of Smilax in greenhouses, for that does not belong to the Smilax genus, and is really an Asparagus. Aspera and its variegated form and rotundifolia are perhaps the best of the hardy kinds.
Considering the Vitises as including Veitch's Virginian Creeper (and the name Vitis inconstans has been substituted for Ampelopsis Veitchii by botanists) the genus is very important, inasmuch as this is perhaps the most popular of all wall plants. It should always be planted in preference to the common Virginian Creeper, Ampelopsis quinquefolia (syn. hederacea), which is a coarse plant and does not give such beautiful autumn colour as Veitch's. The latter is a true climber and assumes exquisite shades in the fall. Vitis Coignetiae is the largest of all the Vines, its huge, thick leaves often being nine inches in diameter. They are deep green above, yellow beneath, and become highly coloured in autumn Heterophylla and its varieties are worth considering A series of new kinds will attract the attention of novelty-lovers. These comprise armata, Veitchii, Henryana, Leeoides and megalophylla. Veitchii is a beautiful form of armata and colours exquisitely in the fall. The Vines are free-growing plants and need not be given a rich soil. The species of Vitis named vinifera is the well-known Grape Vine.
Fig. Veitch's virginian creeper is a true climber and assumes exquisite shades in the fall. Painted by A. C. Wyatt.
The Wistaria is one of the oldest favourites among wall plants, and certainly few ramblers are more beautiful when it is well established. One has to wait for it, especially in poor soil, but when it grows into full beauty it is glorious. The old mauve species is sinensis (chinensis); there are white, variegated-leaved, and double forms. To get a wall well covered with Wistaria the branches should be trained in parallel, horizontal tiers a yard or so apart, and the young growths which spring from them will give fine racemes. The shoots which have bloomed may be cut away in winter, and fresh flowering growths will break the following spring. This pruning routine gives much finer bloom than one gets when the plants are allowed to remain crowded and unkempt from year to year.
Fig. A bare house made beautiful. The Wistaria in its glory. See Chapter 18.
Fig. Italian Arch With Climbing Shrubs At Swallowfield Park. Photo by F. Mason Good.
We see that the number of good climbing shrubs is not limited; on the contrary, there is an almost embarrassing amount of material to choose from. However, in modern gardens there is generally a considerable area provided for climbers. In this connection it may be suggested that the smaller the garden the greater the space above ground that should be provided for plants. It is true that the indiscriminate use of arches, pillars and pergolas might lead to a crowded and packed appearance, and that it is desirable to avoid this; still, there are other important considerations. Apart from the fact that in small gardens the ground area is limited, there is the fact that small gardens often have near neighbours, and the desire for privacy alone urges the flower-lover in the direction of putting up a greater proportion of plant-supports than would be called for in a larger place. Pillars, fences, arbours, pergolas, and the like are not only plant-supports but screens. These are points that must have due weight in planning gardens.