A black colour of the skin, eyes, nails, tooth, urine and stool and the seat of the bite, roughness of the body and heaviness of the head, pain in the joints, weakness of the back, neck and waist, yawning, shivering, hoarseness of the voice, a rattling sound in the throat, lassitude, dry eructation, cough and difficult breathing, hiccough, upward course of the bodily Váyu, pain (S'ula) and consequent aching of the limbs, thirst, excessive salivation, foaming in the mouth, choking of the external orifices of the body (such as the mouth and the nostrils) and peculiar pains (such as the pricking, piercing pain in the body) due to the aggravation of the bodily Vayu, - these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Darvi-kara species. 22.
Yellowness of the skin, etc., longing for cold, a sensation as if the whole interior is being burnt with scorching vapours, extreme burning sensation in the body, thirst, a sensation of intoxication, delirium, fever, haemorrhage through both the upper and the lower channels, sloughing of the flesh, swelling and suppuration in the affected part, a jaundiced sight, a rapid aggravation (of the Pitta) and the presence of various sorts of pain peculiar to the derangement of the of the bodily Fitta, - these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Mandali species. 23
Whiteness of the skin, etc., Sita Jvara (catarrhal fever), horripilation, a numbness of the limbs, a swelling about the seat of the bite, flowing out of dense phlegm (from the mouth), vomiting, constant itching of the eyes, a swelling of and a rattling sound in the throat, obstruction of breath, delirium, peculiar pain and troubles characteristic of the deranged Kapha in the body, - these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Rájimán species 24.
The sight or the pupils of the eyes of a person bitten by a male snake, is turned upward. A bite by a female serpent exhibits such smyptoms as downcast eyes and appearance of veins on the forehead, while that by a hermaphrodite (Napumsaka) snake makes the patient look sidelong. A person bitten by a pregnant snake produces yellowness of the face and tympanites. A bite by a newly delivered snake causes Sula (pain), bloody urination and an attack of tonsilites (Upa-jihviká) in the victim. A person bitten by a hungry serpent craves for food. A bite by an old serpent is marked by a slow and mild character of the different stages of poisoning. A bite by a snake of tender age is marked by a rapid setting of the characteristic poisonous symptoms which are found to be mild in their nature. A bite by a non-venomous serpent is marked by the absence of any of the specific symptoms of poisoning. According to several authorities, a bite by a blind serpent brings on blindness in its train. An Ajagara (Boa-constructor) is found to actually swallow up the body of its prey, to which should be ascribed the death of the victim in such a case (resulting from the crushing of bones and strangulation) and not to the effects of any poison. A person bitten by a snake of instantaneously fatal poison, drops down dead at the moment of the bite as if struck by a sharp weapon or by lightning. 25.
Symptoms of the different stages of poisoning from the bites of a Darvikara Snake: - The poison of all species of snakes (snake-bites) produces seven distinct stages of transformation (in the organism of a person bitten by one of them). The poison of a snake of the Darvi-kara species affects and vitiates the blood (vascular system) in the first stage of its course or its physiological transformation in the body. The blood thereby turns black, imparting its hue to the complexion and giving rise to a sort of creeping sensation in the body, as if ants have been creeping over it In the second stage the poison affects the principle of flesh, turns it deep black and produces swellings and Granthis all over the body. In the third stage it invades the principle of Medas (adipose tissues?) in the body, giving rise to a sort of mucous discharge from the seat of bite, heaviness in the head, perspiration and numbness of the eyes. In the fourth stage the poison enters the Koshtha (abdomen?) and aggravates the Doshas, especially Kapha, producing somnolence, water-brash and a breaking sensation in the joints. In the fifth stage, it penetrates into the principle of bone, deranges the Prána (vital principle) and impairs the Agni (digestive fire), giving rise to hiccough, a burning sensation in the body and a breaking pain in the joints. In the sixth stage, it enters the principle of Majjan (marrow) and greatly deranges the Grahani (the large intestines?) giving rise to a sense of heaviness of the limbs, dysentery, pain in the heart and epileptic fits. In the seventh stage it permeates the principle of semen, extremely aggravates the vital nerve-governing Váyu known as the Vyána, dislodges the Kapha even from the minutest capillaries, producing secretions of lump-like phlegm from the mouth, a breaking pain in the waist and the back, impaired functions of the mind and of the body, excessive salivation, perspiration and a suppression of breath 26.