1. Rhamnus Califor'Nica

Rhamnus Califor'Nica. California, Mexico. Plant, also called locally "cascara sagrada," is smaller than R. Purshiana, and has bark thinner, with reddish dull gray color; leaves elliptical, dentate; flowers numerous, abortive; fruit purple, 3-seeded.

2. VI'Tis Vinifera, Grape Vine

VI'Tis Vinifera, Grape Vine. Vitaceae. The fermented juice (white wine, red wine) of fresh fruit, official 1820-1910; W. Asia, cult, universally. Perennial shrub; stem woody, brownish, long, tortuous; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 5-lobed, roundish, cordate; flowers greenish; fruit ovoid berry, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') broad, pericarp thin, green, yellow, purple, red, pulp juicy, greenish, sweet, acidulous;

Fig. 253.   Rhamnus Purshiana: transverse section, magnified 10 diam.

Fig. 253. - Rhamnus Purshiana: transverse section, magnified 10 diam.

Fig. 254.   Vitis vinifera: in fruit.

Fig. 254. - Vitis vinifera: in fruit.

seeds few, pyriform; grapes contain sugar 12-30 p. c., potassium hitartrate, calcium tartrate, calcium phosphate, potassium sulphate, sodium chloride, tannic acid, malic acid, albumin, pectin, etc.; argol - potassium bitartrate, tartaric acid. 1. Vinum Album, White Wine. Obtained by fermenting for several weeks the juice of fresh grapes freed from seeds, stems, skins; contains 7-12 (8.5-15 vol.) p. c. of alcohol, and includes Sherry, Lisbon, Teneriffe, Madeira, Rhenish, Hock, Moselle, French, California, etc. 2. Vinum Rubrum, Red Wine. Obtained by fermenting juice of fresh grapes in the presence of their skins; contains 7-12 (8.5-15 vol.) p. c. of alcohol, and includes Claret, Port, Burgundy, etc. Stimulant, depressant, astringent, tonic, diaphoretic; fevers, general debility, irritable stomach, ulceration, gangrene, tetanus, old age.