Quininae Hydrochloridum, Quinine Hydrochloride, C20H24N2O2.-HC1 + 2H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Hydrochl., Quinine Chloride, Quininae Hydrochloras, Muriate of Quinine; Fr. Chlorhydrate de Quinine (basique); Ger. Chininum hydrochloricum, Chininhydro-chlorid, Salzsaures Chinin.) Obtained by dissolving quinine in warm diluted hydrochloric acid until solution neutral, crystallizing; or by double decomposition of quinine sulphate and barium chloride, in hot water. It is in white, silky, glistening needles, odorless, very bitter taste, efflorescent, soluble in water (18), hot water (.5), alcohol (.8), glycerin (7), chloroform (.7), ether (340); aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly alkaline, non-fluorescent, except when highly diluted or diluted sulphuric acid added. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 1.00) 1 Ml. (Cc.) + 1-2 drops of bromine T. S., + ammonia water 1 Ml. (Cc.) - emerald-green color (thalleioquin). 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with silver nitrate T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid; dried to constant weight - loses 10 p. c; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Barium, morphine, sulphate, organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.).

Quininae Dihydrochloridum, Quinine Dihydrochloride, C20H24N2O2-2HC1, official. - (Syn., Quin. Dihydrochl., Quinine Bimuriate; Br. Quininae Hydrochloridum Acidum, Acid Quinine Hydrochloride; Fr. Chlorhydrate acide de Quinine; Ger. Chininum dihydrochloricum, Chinindihydrochlorid.) Obtained by dissolving quinine hydrochloride (10) in distilled water (20), adding 25 p. c. hydrochloric acid (3.7), crystallizing; may also be made by double decomposition between quinine bisulphate and barium chloride. It is a white powder, odorless, very bitter taste, soluble in water (.6), alcohol (12), slightly in chloroform, very slightly in ether; aqueous solution (1 in 20) strongly acid. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with silver nitrate T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 1 Ml. (Cc.), + 1-2 drops of bromine water T. S., + excess of ammonia water - emerald-green color (thalleioquin); incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Barium, sulphate, readily carbonizable substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Owing to great solubility very valuable hypodermically - whooping-cough of children, etc. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.); child, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), 25 p. c. solution.

Quininae Salicylas, Quinine Salicylate, C20H24N2O2.HC7H5O3 + H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Salicyl.; Fr. Salicylate de Quinine (basique); Chininsalicylat, Salicylsaures Chinin.) Obtained by dissolving quinine sulphate (10) in boiling water (75), adding sodium salicylate (3.89) dissolved in water (30), washing precipitate; or neutralize alcoholic solution of quinine with salicylic acid, concentrate, crystallize; or double decompose solution of quinine hydrochloride with sodium salicylate. It is in colorless, odorless needles, bitter taste, permanent, turning pinkish on keeping, soluble in alcohol (14), glycerin (13), chloroform (25), ether (160), slightly in water; aqueous solution (1 in 20) alkaline. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution 10 Ml. (Cc.), + 1-2 drops of bromine T. S., + excess of ammonia water - emerald-green color (thalleioquin). 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with 1 drop of ferric chloride T. S. - violet color; dried to constant weight - loses 5 p. c; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Chloride, sulphate. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.).

Quininae Sulphas, Quinine Sulphate, (C20H24N2O2)2.H2SO4 + 7H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Sulph., Quininae Sulphas, Sulfas Quinicus; Fr. Sulfate de Quinine (basique); Ger. Chininum sulfuricum, Chininsulfat, Schwefelsaures Chinin.) Obtained by exhausting powdered bark with acidified water (HC1, H2SO4), precipitating with an alkali; or by mixing powdered bark with milk of lime, dissolving out alkaloids with petroleum oil, treating with diluted sulphuric acid, neutralizing with sodium carbonate, crystallizing. It is in white, silky, light, flexible, glistening crystals, making a very light, easily compressible mass, or hard, prismatic, monoclinic needles, odorless, persistent, very bitter taste, efflorescent (rapidly),• becoming lustreless, brownish on exposure, soluble in water (725), hot water (47), alcohol (107), hot alcohol (12), glycerin (30), slightly in chloroform, ether, freely in a mixture of chloroform (7) and dehydrated alcohol (4); saturated aqueous solution neutral, slightly alkaline; with diluted sulphuric acid - vivid blue fluorescence. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 1000) 10 Ml. (Cc.), + 1-2 drops of bromine T. S., + excess of ammonia water - emerald-green color (thalleioquin). 2. Aqueous solution with barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid; dried to constanl weight loses 16.2 p. c; incinerate 2 Gm. ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Cinchona alkaloids, ammonium sulphate, inorganic salts, morphine, organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20-40 (.06-1.3-2.6 Gm.).

Most of the world's supply of quinine is produced by 20 factories: Prance - 5, America - 4, England - 3, Germany - 2, Italy - 2, Bengal,

Fig. 386.   Quinine sulphate: microscopic crystals.

Fig. 386. - Quinine sulphate: microscopic crystals.

Fig. 387.   Quinine sulphate with KSCy: microscopic granules.

Fig. 387. - Quinine sulphate with KSCy: microscopic granules.

Holland, Java, Madras Presidency, each - 1; the average annual Asiatic output is about: Madras - 15.711 pounds (7.141 Kg.), Bengal - 11.297 pounds (5.135 Kg.), Java - 43.750 pounds (19.886 Kg.).

Quininae Tannas, Quinine Tannate, C20H24N2O2.3C14H10O9 + 8H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Tann., Tasteless (Neutral) Quinine; Fr. Tannate de Quinine; Ger. Chininum tannicum, Chinintannat, Gerbsaures