2. Cultivated India Bark

Cultivated India Bark. This is cared for and collected in several ways: 1, Urooting, which consists in pulling up and barking the whole tree and replanting the ground - the bark of each tree-part being marketed separately; 2, Coppicing, mostly practised, and consists in felling the trees, allowing shoots to spring from the stumps, and collecting the bark as soon as "ripe," when plants 6-9 years old and trunks 15-20 Cm. (6-8') thick - as such furnishing when in quills, "Druggists' bark," or when broken up and compressed to save transportation charges, "Manufacturers' bark," being purchased upon assay-unit, each unit corresponding to 1 p. c. of quinine in a pound (.5 Kg.); 3, Shaving, which consists of shaving off with drawing-knives the outer bark of plants 3-5 years old, leaving intact the liber, upon which another growth of richer bark soon forms; 4, Mossing, which consists

Fig. 385.   Cinchona seroon.

Fig. 385. - Cinchona seroon.

of taking off yearly alternating strips of bark and covering the decorticated portion with moss, grass, straw, hay, rags, paper, etc., thereby giving an annual yield of rich bark (mossed, renewed) during the tree's entire life. Bark thus covered is stronger in alkaloids, as it prevents the sun converting the alkaloids into coloring matter, especially on the side exposed to direct rays (most quinine and quinidine in bark from trees grown in mid-woods (shade), most cinchonidine and cinchonine from trees exposed to sun). The last two methods not only furnish richest bark, but also replace it rapidly, at the same time they are attended with the drawback of exposing new-forming bark-cells to the attack of stage-beetles, ants, etc. The average annual exportation of cinchona bark is about as follows: Java 14,726,000 pounds (6,693,190 Kg.); India 1,020,000 pounds (63,640 Kg.); Ceylon 407,000 pounds (185,000 Kg.); S. America 775,000 pounds (352,273 Kg.); Africa 178,872 pounds (81,305 Kg.). Most of the cultivated bark is in quills, whereas most of the wild-grown was in large pieces (tabla), thereby rendering examination easy.

Constituents. - From 21-32 natural alkaloids: Quinine, Quinidine, Cinchonine, Cinchonidine, Quinamine, Chinoidine, (Conquinamine,

Cupreine, Homoquinine, Hydroquinine, Paytine, Concusconine, etc.); 8 artificial alkaloids: Quinicine, Cinchonicine, Quinamicine, Apoquin-amine, etc., Quinic acid, Quiniovic acid, Cincho-tannic acid, Quinovin, Cinchona-red, volatile oil, resin, starch, gum, sugar, wax, calcium oxalate, ash 1-3 p. c.

The first 4 alkaloids are the most important, and can be obtained by mixing a concentrated infusion of cinchona with milk of lime, whereby this latter combines with the acids and coloring matter, thus liberating the alkaloids; now strain, and exhaust the residue with boiling alcohol (benzin, kerosene), acidify with sulphuric acid, treat with animal charcoal, filter, and while hot neutralize with sodium hydroxide V. S., when quinine sulphate crystallizes out; to the mother-liquor add large excess of ammonia water, which precipitates cinchonine and cinchoni-dine, while quinidine remains in solution; dissolve the precipitate in boiling alcohol, and upon cooling cinchonine separates; by evaporating the two remaining solutions we get on the one hand cinchonidine, and on the other quinidine. The respective salts may be prepared by dissolving the several alkaloids in water, adding sufficient of the desired acid for neutralization, allowing to crystallize.

Quinina, Quinine, C20H24N2O2 + 3H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin., Chininum; Fr. Quinine; Ger. Chinin.) This alkaloid, obtained from the bark of various cinchona species, may be prepared by precipitating a solution of quinine sulphate in acidified water with an alkali, thereby yielding the anhydrous, white, curdy, amorphous alkaloid, which by being kept under water changes to the crystalline form. It is a white, micro-crystalline powder, odorless, bitter taste, developing rather slowly, but intense and persistent, efflorescent, soluble in water (1560), boiling water (800), alcohol (.8), chloroform (1.1), ether (1.9), ammonia water (1890); alcoholic solution (1 in 10) laevorotatory, alkaline; solution in sulphuric acid - vivid blue fluorescence. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 1 Ml. (Cc.) + diluted sulphuric acid to dissolve, + ammonia water 1 Ml. (Cc), + 2-3 drops of bromine T. S. - emerald-green color (thalleioquin). 2. Dry to constant weight - loses 15 p. c; incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c. Impurities: Morphine, ammonium salts, organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.).

Quininae Bisulphas, Quinine Bisulphate, C20H24N2O2.H2SO4 + 7H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Bisulph., Quininae Sulphas Acidus; Fr. Sulfate acide (Bisulfate) de Quinine (neutre); Ger. Chininum bisul-furicum, Saures Chininsulfat.) This acid sulphate is obtained by dissolving neutral quinine sulphate (100) in warm distilled water (500) + diluted sulphuric acid (115), setting aside to crystallize. It is in colorless, transparent, whitish, orthorhombic crystals or small needles, odorless, very bitter taste, efflorescent, yellow on exposure to light, soluble in water (9), boiling water (.7), alcohol (23), hot alcohol (.7), glycerin (15), chloroform (625), ether (2500). Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 1 Ml. (Cc.) + ammonia water 1 Ml. (Cc), + 1-2 drops of bromine T. S. - emerald-green color (thalleioquin). 2. Aqueous solution with barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 3. Dry to constant weight - loses 25 p. c.; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 ]). c. Impurities: Morphine, organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.00-1.3 Gm.).

Quininae Hydrobromidum, Quinine Hydrobromide, C20H24N2O2. HBr. + H2O, official. - (Syn., Quin. Hydrobr., Quinine Bromide, Quininae Hydrobromas; Fr. Bromhydrate de Quinine (basique); Ger. Chininhydrobromat, Bromwasserstoffsaures Chinin.) Obtained by dissolving quinine (alkaloid) in warm diluted hydrobromic acid, neutralizing, crystallizing; may also be made by double decomposition between quinine sulphate and barium bromide, in hot water. It is in white, light, silky needles, odorless, very bitter taste, efflorescent, soluble in water (40), hot water (3.2), alcohol (.9), glycerin (7), chloroform (.6), ether (23); saturated aqueous solution neutral, slightly alkaline; with diluted sulphuric acid - vivid blue fluorescence. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 1 Ml. (Cc.), + 1-2 drops of bromine T. S., + ammonia water 1 Ml. (Cc.) - emerald-green color (thalleio-quin). 2. Saturated aqueous solution with sodium hydroxide T. S. - white precipitate; supersaturate filtrate with acetic acid, add chloroform + little chlorine water, shake - chloroform reddish-brown color; dried to constant weight - loses 5 p. c; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Impurities: Barium, morphine, sulphate, organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.).