Co'Cos Nucif'Era, Oleum Cocois (Cocoanut Oil). Tropics. A fixed oil expressed from palm seeds after being boiled with water; yield 50-60 p. c.; it is a white solid, consistence of butter, odor disagreeable, soon becoming rancid; demulcent; mostly used in soaps.
Ac'Orus Cal'Amus, Calamus Root, Sweet Flag. Araceae. The impeded, dried rhizome, official 1820-1910; N. America, Europe, Asia, swamps. Perennial herb; leaves, like those of Iris versicolor, 1-1.3 M. (3-4°) long, 2-4 Cm. (4/2-1 3/5') wide, equitant, sharp-pointed,
Fig. 34. - Acorus Calamus.
sharp-edged; flowers on scape, spadix (spike) 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long,. 1 Cm. (§') thick, minute, greenish-yellow. Rhizome, .6-1 M. (2-3°) long, 1-2 Cm. (2/5-4/2') thick, entire or longitudinally split pieces, cylin-draceous, yellowish-brown, wrinkled, annulate (remnants of leaf-sheaths), leaf-scars above, pitted root-scars beneath, fracture short, sharp, corky, spongy, whitish, showing oil cells; odor aromatic; taste
Fig. 35. - Acorus Calamus, rhizome: a, under surface; b, upper surface.
pungent, bitter; solvents: alcohol, hot water partially; contains (most in cortex) volatile oil 1.5-3.5 p. c., acorin .2 p. c., choline (calamine), resin. Stimulant, carminative, tonic, bitter, aromatic; dyspepsia, colic, flatulency, coughs, flavoring. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (75 p. c. alcohol), xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)); tincture 20 p. c, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion.
Arisae'Ma (A'Rum) Triphyl'Lum, Indian Turnip. The cormus, official 1820-1870; N. America. Plant acaulescent, leaves 2, 3-divided, 5-17.5 Cm. (2.7') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') wide. Corm 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') broad, brownish-gray, inside white, mealy, taste burning, acrid; contains volatile acrid principle, starch, fat, gum, resin, calcium oxalate (gives acridity). Used as stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic, irritant for colic, flatulence, asthma, whooping-cough, chronic catarrh, rheumatism, bronchitis, aphthous sores, ringworm; in honey, syrup, ointment. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
Spathye'Ma (Symplocar'Pus) Fae'Tida, Skunk Cabbage. The dried rhizome and roots, official 1820-1880. Perennial, spathe appears first in spring, covered with purplish spots and stripes, flowers dull purple, leaves .3-.6 M. (1-2°) long, .3-.4 M. (12-15') wide. Rhizome obconical, truncate, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 5 Cm. (2') thick. Many rootlets, brownish-gray, inside whitish, many wood-bundles, whole plant fetid, more so when triturated, taste acrid, biting; contains volatile oil, gum, fat, resin, starch. Emetic, diuretic, antispasmodic, stimulant, narcotic; for asthma, chronic catarrh, rheumatism, chorea, hysteria, dropsy, bronchitis, in infusion, tincture. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
Epiprem'Num Mirab'Ile (Rhaphidoph'Ora Vitien'Sis - Araceae), And Prem'Na Traiten'Sis, Tonga. Verbenaceae; Fiji Islands. The mixed bark contains tongine (volatile alkaloid), volatile oil. Anodyne; neuralgia, rheumatism, in combination with salicylates. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).