Metrox'Ylon Rum'Phii (Sa'Gus Rum'Phii), Pearl Sago. The prepared fecula, official 1820-1880; E. India Islands, Borneo, Moluccas, etc. Medium-size palm, 6-9 M. (20-30°) high, stem thick, covered with leaf-stalk remains, many pinnate leaves at apex; fruit round nut, covered with an imbricate coat, 1-seeded. The stem centre contains medullary matter like elder pith, which is obtained by felling and splitting the tree trunk, washing pith to extract the starch, which may be powdered, forming sago meal, or granulated. Each tree yields 500-600 pounds (225-270 Kg.) of sago. Pearl sago is the best, in pearl-like grains, brownish, diaphanous, unaltered granules oblong, truncate, muller-shaped, layers distinct, hilum at rounded end often cleft; common sago (M. Sa'gu) is larger grained. Used as demulcent, nutrient for sick with weak digestion, fevers; it is easily digested, non-irritating, prepared by boiling 1 part in water 32, straining, flavoring. Factitious sago is made from potato starch.
2. Daemon'orops (Cal'amus) Dra'co, Draconis Resina (Dragon's Blood.) - Borneo, Sumatra. A spontaneous resinous exudation from the ripening fruit; occurs in tears, globular pieces 4 Cm. (1 3/5') thick, cylindrical sticks .3 M. (12') long, or in irregular cakes, dark brown, inside bright red, fracture dull, irregular, inodorous; when heated aromatic like benzoin, tasteless; contains red resin (draconin), benzoic acid or cinnamic acid, or both wanting, dracoresinotannol, draco-resin, dracoalban, ash 8-9 p. c.; mild stimulant, astringent. Used in tooth powders, plasters, varnishes.
Fig. 31. - Metroxylon Rumphii.
Fig. 32. - Sago starch.
Ar'Eca Cat'Echu, Areca Nut. East Indies; cultivated. Large palm tree 15-18 M. (50-60°) high, fruit orange-color, size of hen's egg, contains 1 seed (nut), roundish, conical, 25 Mm. (1') long, 9 Mm. (3/8') thick, brown, with many reddish veins, inside horny, white, odor faint, taste astringent; contains fat 14 p. c, tannin, resin, arecoline, C8H13NO2 (poisonous, taenifuge), arecaine, guvacine; astringent, taenifuge. Dose, 3ij-3 (8-12 Gm.).
Fig. 33. - Areca Catechu.
Ehae'Is Guineen'Sis, Oleum Palmae (Palm Oil). W. Africa. Heat fruit with water and express. It is a solid fat, harder than butter, orange-red, bleached by light and heat, violet odor, bland taste, fuses at 27° C. (81 ° F.), upon keeping acquires rancid odor and lighter color; demulcent; used in ointments, but mostly in soaps and candles.