(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. Edinburgh.)




Indo-Germanic or Aryan (white) .

Europe, Persia,


Mongolian or Tur-ainian (yellow and brown) . .

Greater part of Asia ....


Semitic or Hamitic (white) ....

North Africa, Arabia . . .


Negro and Bantu (black) ....

Central Africa


Hottentot and Bushman (black)

South Africa


Malay and Polynesian (brown) .

Australasia and Polynesia .


American Indian


North & South America . .




The human family is subject to forty-two principal governments. As to their form they may be classified as follows : Absolute monarchies, China, Korea, Morocco, Persia, Russia Siam, Turkey; Limited monarchies, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Roumania, Servia. Sweden and Norway, Spain: Republics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia! Brazil. Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador. France Guatemala, Hayti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru Salvador, ban Domingo, Switzerland, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. Besides these are the undefined despotisms of Central Africa, and a few insignificant independent States.

The extreme length of Europe, from northeast to southwest is about 3,400 miles. Its water boundary, if a continuous line, would reach four-fifths of the way around the world. The islands of Europe constitute one-twentieth of its entire area ; therefore, in relative extent its coast line surpasses that of all other countries. The coast of Europe is also greatly indented by in-running seas and bays, and the great number of these indentations secure to Europe her commercial supremacy.

The British Isles, are, and for more than a century have been, the headquarters of commercial Europe. They are separated from the Continent by the North Sea, which has an average depth of about 600 feet, and there is much to show that they were once a part of the main land.

The greater part of the Continent is low and level.

Russia and all the territory bordering on the North and Baltic Seas constitute a vast plain called "Low Europe" the basin of the Caspian Sea and much of the country of the Netherlands being really below the level of the ocean.

"High Europe" is made up of the plateau extending along the southern part of the Continent. This plateau is surrounded by the irregular and broken mountain ranges which constitute the Alpine system, of which the Alps, proper, form the highest range, the other principal ranges being the Pyrenees, Apennines, Balkan, Carpathian and Caucasus Mountains.

The Alps are the sources of the rivers Rhine, Rhone, and Po, and several tributaries of the Danube. The real birthplaces of these streams are in the glaciers, for the great number and extent of which the Alps have long been celebrated. Most of the rivers of Western Europe are navigable, and are connected with one another by canals.

The Lakes of Europe are chiefly located in the northwestern part of the Continent, Lake Ladoga in Russia being the largest. Those in the Swiss Alps, especially Geneva and Constance, are famed for their beauty of scenery. There are many salt lakes in Russia, most of which are situated in the basin of the Caspian Sea.

The Climate of Europe is more equable than that of any other country situated in corresponding latitudes. Its mildness is due chiefly to the southwesterly winds which are warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream. The southern part of the Continent reaches within 120 of the tropics, while the most northern boundaries do not approach the limit of the frozen zone.

The Products of Europe are grain, hemp, flax, and tobacco in the central region, and grapes, olives, oranges, lemons, figs, mulberries, and cotton in the vicinity of the Mediterranean coast. Animals of the large wild type have disappeared before the footsteps of civilization, except in the more thinly settled and least accessible sections. White bear, the reindeer and fur-bearing animals are found in the north; the wolf and wild boar are yet hunted by sportsmen in the forests, while chamois and ibex may be stalked by the bold hunter in the Alpine heights. Fish, which come in schools, abound perhaps as much as ever in the surrounding waters.

Minerals, such as coal, iron, and copper, are widely distributed. Silver, zinc, and lead are plentiful in the central highlands, quicksilver, nitre, sulphur, and salt in the volcanic regions, and coral of great beauty is obtained in the Mediterranean Sea. In richness of mineral products, however, Europe does not compare with North America - the United States and Canada.