Fig. 688. Fig. 689. Fig. 690.

Various Specimens Of Moderate Dimensions Attachmen 400369

The method shown by fig. 690, is neater and easier but less strong; both ends of the shafts are bored with parallel holes to receive separate hardwood pins, which pass through the intermediate pieces into the surfaces to which they are to be connected. The ends of the shafts are cut off at an angle, but this section being oval, the surfaces of the capital and base, have to be a little larger than its long diameter. These pieces turned to form, both surfaces remaining parallel, they merely require boring at the appropriate angle with a circular aperture the diameter of the pin; effected by interposing a tapering flat piece of wood between the wood and the flange of the popit head, or by turning the apertures at an angle, as described. Small and less accurate works, such as the Watch stand, fig. 684, may have the surfaces of the shaded portions, fig. 688, filed to the angle, and when the surfaces to which the inclined columns are attached are themselves conical, as in fig. 681, the mouldings remain at right angles to the shaft and are turned in the solid.

The positions for the holes in the surfaces of the two main pieces to receive the inclined columns, are marked out as for fig. 687. When drilled to size, the work is advanced by the flange of the popit head held on a tapering piece of wood, or when the inclination is considerable, upon two parallel pieces meeting at one end and more or less separated at the other by a third piece interposed, all three securely fixed together. When the holes are turned, the work is carried upon fig. 321, or upon a tapering lifting piece attached to a surface chuck; being retained in position upon either, on an eccentric pin entering a central hole in the work, and fixed by clamps as described under the head of surface chucks.

The Watch stands, figs. 679 to 681, from five to six inches high, are usually made of hardwood or ivory, or with good effect as also in most of the combined examples, of hardwood for the principal pieces, with ivory interspersed for the enrichments and smaller portions. The arch connecting the columns is turned as a ring and may be of various sections; the piece employed, is first turned as a true cylinder within and without and its length reduced to its thickness, leaving it exactly square, to serve as a basis for more ornamental sections. During their formation, the ring is chucked in a wood spring chuck for turning its internal edge, and upon the fillet of a plain wood chuck, for reducing its two surfaces and external edge, being reversed from time to time, but always carefully placed in contact with the true shoulders of the rebates of either chuck.

Fig. 691. 692. 693. 694. 695. 696.

Various Specimens Of Moderate Dimensions Attachmen 400370

For an octagon section fig. 692, the four corners are reduced with a flat tool until all the eight sides agree in width; the alternate faces may then be turned in hollows with a round tool, or as in fig. 694, an astragal bead may be turned on the center of every side of the original square. Among others the ring may be turned to a circular section, the latter, first as an octagon and then by continuously and equally obliterating the angles formed upon the system described for the sphere, fig. 431, until the circle is arrived at. This then serves as a gage to cut its entire surface into a series of small beads, side by side, fig. 696; the tool is presented radially to the circle, while those beads within the ring which cannot be otherwise reached, are cut with an internal bead tool, fig. 401, upon the armrest.

The finished ring is cut across with a saw, rather more than half being employed for the arch; this is mounted in the spring chuck fig. 319, with first the one and then the other end adjusted centrally, the opposite ends projecting through the side of the chuck, to turn each surface flat, and parallel with the diameter of the ring. The arch is removed from the chuck from time to time, and the progress tested by standing its ends upon some flat surface, until the result proves to be correct. The exact center is then marked upon each end surface, which may be conveniently done with the sliding center, fig. 200, the arch reversed and held in the clamps of the vice; the distance between the two centers is then measured with the compasses and transferred to the base, to mark that with the positions for the two corresponding apertures. Replaced in the chuck, the arch has each center adjusted to run true, a straight edge placed across the two ends, showing that their two surfaces are at the same time parallel with the surface of the chuck; the ends are then pierced for plain fittings, or cut with internal screws to receive the pins turned above the capitals. When screwed into the arch, the lower pins of the columns are inserted in the base as plain fittings, but these are also frequently secured by turned screws, their heads countersunk in the under surface of the base, passing upwards into internal screws cut in the pins. The four little curved pieces for supporting the watch and chain upon fig. 684, in like manner are parts cut from a small ring, inserted in holes pierced in the moulding and in the little balls which surmount them.

The watch hook is first turned to the shape of a pear to obtain the outline, the upper end terminating in a little ornamented collar and a screw pin for its attachment. The opposite sides of the lower part are flattened and equally reduced to the thickness with a file; the internal line of the hook is then sketched on one of the sides with a pencil, and a large hole having been bored through the piece, to form the lowest portion of the internal curvature, the remainder is cut out with a piercing saw, fig. 714, Vol. II., or drilled with a series of fine holes, to be cut through with small files in finishing the hook to shape. The hole to receive the hook, is turned with the arch adjusted centrally in the chuck, attained by shifting the work laterally until the two ends describe the same circle, the end surfaces being also tested for parallelism with the surface of the chuck to secure the hole being vertical; the latter, as in fig. 680, is sometimes bored completely through, a long screw on the hook then passing upwards into a terminal ornament.