The Candle shade, fig. 697, about ten inches high, has the stem supported on a tripod, formed of equal portions of a ring of square section; this, is marked and cut across in three places, parallel with its diameter for the upper ends, and radially in three others, for the lower. The upper faces of the arcs are turned flat, held in fig. 319, and pierced to receive small plain or screwed pins to attach them to the stem; the vertical faces are then turned flat, agreement in the lengths of the three pieces being ascertained by placing them side by side when out of the chuck; replaced in the chuck, the lower faces are turned slightly concave and bored to receive the pins of the terminal balls. Temporarily fixed to the stem, the three are stood upon their base to find the position for the vertical pins to attach them to it; the point of contact is marked upon the base and upon one arc, a circle is struck upon the former for the holes, and the mark is transferred from the latter to its two fellows by measurement. Every one is then returned to the chuck with the mark for the hole adjusted centrally, their flat upper ends abutting against the square flat bottom of the gap, or should that be too deep, against a parallel filling piece placed across it. Every piece being thus referred to a surface at right angles to the mandrel, to determine that all three holes are bored alike and vertical.
The Inkstands, figs. 682 and 701, are both three inches high. The first is composed of four pieces, the lowest being a square plinth, the handles are formed of semi-circles joined beneath by curved pieces, the former turned and of round, and the latter of tapering rectangular section cut out with the saw and file. The two halves of this handle are firmly connected and the joint broken by separate small beads, either surface of which carries a pin in the solid screwing into the two parts, similar pieces attaching the handles to the upper surface of the main figure. Fig. 701, is of separate pieces above and below, fitting into each other and having external fillets, enclosing a flat ring, which is of a width sufficient to allow the insertion of the quadrants forming the three supports. The flat radial extremities of the latter are pierced with screwed holes to receive the feet below, and the screwed pins with hemi-spherical heads, passing through and securing them to the ring above. Shallow recesses may also be turned in the under surface of the ring to admit the ends of the quadrants; the ring when marked and divided, being mounted on a surface chuck to turn these and the holes for the screwed pins ; the parts when polished being slightly glued for additional security, before they are finally placed together. The feet formed of cubes with ornaments inserted in their five faces, the similar central portion of the candlestick, fig. 656, and analogous rectangular parts in the other designs, being turned as described in the last chapter.
The handles added to the Vases, figs. 705. 706, are composed of semi-circles joined to cylinders, by pins turned upon the latter. In fig. 706, the plain circular section obtains throughout, the vertical portions being inserted in the body of the vase after passing through small circular ornaments, pierced at an angle, employed to conceal the joint. In fig. 705, the more numerous joints are broken by mouldings turned on the cylinders, the semi-circles being of square section attached to the vase by pins. The Vase fig. 698, about six inches high, has the handles terminated by brackets affixed to its sides; these may be also turned and then flattened on one edge to about a third of their circumference and hollowed to fit against the vase, or as in the figure, they may be rectangular cut out and shaped with the file.
The handles of the Vases figs. 699 and 702 to 704, pierced and cut out of thin flat pieces, are attached by pins entering holes drilled in appropriate positions in them and in the main figure; those shown are plain to agree in character with the vases they complete, but they admit of configuration when desirable and a variety of forms may thus be introduced, while the handles may be of the same or of another material to that of the vase. In the first and last figures, both about nine inches high, the handles are of single pieces gradually tapering both in width and thickness; two or three small hardwood pins attach one rib of the handle, the edge of which is slightly cemented when it is fixed to the vase. The pierced handles of fig. 702 are carved at the lower ends where one pin is placed, the upper pins have large turned heads and pass through them into the vase; similar heads being fixed upon projections left upon the upper ends of the handles. The more massive handles of fig. 703, cut out with the piercing saw and file, tapering also in thickness, the grain running vertically, may be notched into the lip, while below they terminate in pins entering the side of the vase, abutting also against inserted, turned ornaments which served to conceal the joint ; other similar ornaments being added beneath. All the foregoing vases may be executed in such soft woods as pear tree or beech, and in hardwood or ivory.
The three uprights of the tripod supporting the Amphora fig. 700, one of which is omitted in the figure to avoid confusion, are made from flat pieces, somewhat the form of a letter L, to obtain a center in the line of the shaft to turn that cylindrical; the solid material replacing the clamp and pieces of wood shown in fig. 228. The shaft turned, the lower portions left of rectangular section are shaped by hand, and drilled with small central holes to receive the pins of their ornaments, formed as a series of steps, which are affixed to both sides. The shafts pass through holes bored in a ring which encircles the base of the vase, and are pinned below to the triform plinth.